Word by Word
So move about
(is) the One Who (will) disgrace
So move about
(is) the One Who (will) disgrace
Go ye, then, for four months, backwards and forwards, (as ye will), throughout the land, but know ye that ye cannot frustrate Allah (by your falsehood) but that Allah will cover with shame those who reject Him.
'Journey freely, travel in security, O idolaters, in the land for four months - beginning with [the month of] Shawwaal, on the basis of what will come shortly - after which there will be no security for you, and know that you cannot escape God, that is, you shall [not] elude His punishment, and that God degrades the disbelievers', humiliating them in this world by having them killed, and in the Hereafter, by [sending them to] the Hellfire.
"Tafsir of Surah At Taubah
Why there is no Basmalah in the Beginning of This Surah
This honorable Surah was one of the last Surahs to be revealed to the Messenger of Allah.
Al-Bukhari recorded that Al-Bara' said,
""The last Ayah to be revealed was,
يَسۡتَفۡتُونَكَ قُلِ اللَّهُ يُفۡتِيكُمۡ فِى الۡكَلَـلَةِ
(They ask you for a legal verdict. Say:""Allah directs (thus) about Al-Kalalah."" (4:176), while the last Surah to be revealed was Bara'ah.""
The Basmalah was not mentioned in the beginning of this Surah because the Companions did not write it in the complete copy of the Qur'an (Mushaf) they collected, following the Commander of the faithful, Uthman bin Affan, may Allah be pleased with him.
The first part of this honorable Surah was revealed to the Messenger of Allah when he returned from the battle of Tabuk, during the Hajj season, which the Prophet thought about attending. But he remembered that the idolators would still attend that Hajj, as was usual in past years, and that they perform Tawaf around the House while naked. He disliked to associate with them and sent Abu Bakr As-Siddiq, may Allah be pleased with him, to lead Hajj that year and show the people their rituals, commanding him to inform the idolators that they would not be allowed to participate in Hajj after that season. He commanded him to proclaim,
بَرَاءةٌ مِّنَ اللّهِ وَرَسُولِه
(Freedom from (all) obligations (is declared) from Allah and His Messenger...), to the people.
When Abu Bakr had left, the Messenger sent Ali bin Abu Talib to be the one to deliver this news to the idolators on behalf of the Messenger, for he was the Messenger's cousin. We will mention this story later.
Publicizing the Disavowal of the Idolators
بَرَاءةٌ مِّنَ اللّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ
Freedom from obligations from Allah and His Messenger,
is a declaration of freedom from all obligations from Allah and His Messenger,
إِلَى الَّذِينَ عَاهَدتُّم مِّنَ الۡمُشۡرِكِينَ
فَسِيحُواۡ فِي الَارۡضِ أَرۡبَعَةَ أَشۡهُرٍ
to those of the Mushrikin, with whom you made a treaty. So travel freely (Mushrikin) for four months (as you will) throughout the land,
This Ayah refers to idolators who had indefinite treaties and those, whose treaties with Muslims ended in less than four months. The terms of these treaties were restricted to four months only. As for those whose term of peace ended at a specific date later (than the four months), then their treaties would end when their terms ended, no matter how long afterwards, for Allah said,
فَأَتِمُّواۡ إِلَيۡهِمۡ عَهۡدَهُمۡ إِلَى مُدَّتِهِمۡ
(So fulfill their treaty for them until the end of their term). (9:4)
So whoever had a covenant with Allah's Messenger then it would last until its period expired, this was reported from Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi and others.
We will also mention a Hadith on this matter. Abu Ma`shar Al-Madani said that Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi and several others said,
""The Messenger of Allah sent Abu Bakr to lead the Hajj rituals on the ninth year (of Hijrah). He also sent Ali bin Abi Talib with thirty or forty Ayat from Bara'ah (At-Tawbah), and he recited them to the people, giving the idolators four months during which they freely move about in the land. He recited these Ayat on the day of Arafah (ninth of Dhul-Hijjah). The idolators were given twenty more days (till the end) of Dhul-Hijjah, Muharram, Safar, Rabi Al-Awwal and ten days from Rabi Ath-Thani.
He proclaimed to them in their camping areas, `No Mushrik will be allowed to perform Hajj after this year, nor a naked person to perform Tawaf around the House.""'
So Allah said,
وَاعۡلَمُواۡ أَنَّكُمۡ غَيۡرُ مُعۡجِزِي اللّهِ وَأَنَّ اللّهَ مُخۡزِي الۡكَافِرِينَ
but know that you cannot escape (from the punishment of) Allah; and Allah will disgrace the disbelievers
وَأَذَانٌ مِّنَ اللّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ
And a declaration from Allah and His Messenger,
and a preface warning to the people,
يَوۡمَ الۡحَجِّ الَاكۡبَرِ
on the greatest day of Hajj,
the day of Sacrifice, the best and most apparent day of the Hajj rituals, during which the largest gathering confers.
أَنَّ اللّهَ بَرِيءٌ مِّنَ الۡمُشۡرِكِينَ وَرَسُولُهُ
that Allah is free from (all) obligations to the Mushrikin and so is His Messenger.
also free from all obligations to them.
Allah next invites the idolators to repent,
So if you repent,
from the misguidance and Shirk you indulge in,
فَهُوَ خَيۡرٌ لَّكُمۡ وَإِن تَوَلَّيۡتُمۡ
it is better for you, but if you turn away,
and persist on your ways,
فَاعۡلَمُواۡ أَنَّكُمۡ غَيۡرُ مُعۡجِزِي اللّهِ
then know that you cannot escape Allah,
Rather, Allah is capable over you, and you are all in His grasp, under His power and will,
وَبَشِّرِ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواۡ بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ
And give tidings of a painful torment for those who disbelieve.
earning them disgrace and affliction in this life and the torment of chains and barbed iron bars in the Hereafter.
Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Hurayrah said,
""Abu Bakr sent me during that Hajj with those dispatched on the day of Sacrifice to declare in Mina that no Mushrik will be allowed to attend Hajj after that year, nor will a naked person be allowed to perform Tawaf.""
""The Prophet then sent Ali bin Abi Talib and commanded him to announce Bara'ah.""
Abu Hurayrah said,
""Ali publicized Bara'ah with us to the gathering in Mina on the day of Sacrifice, declaring that no Mushrik shall perform Hajj after that year, nor shall a naked person perform Tawaf around the House.""
Al-Bukhari also collected this Hadith. this narration of which, Abu Hurayrah said,
""On the day of Nahr, Abu Bakr sent me along with other announcers to Mina to make a public announcement that `No pagan is allowed to perform Hajj after this year, and no naked person is allowed to perform the Tawaf around the Ka`bah.'
Abu Bakr was leading the people in that Hajj season, and in the year of `The Farewell Hajj' when the Prophet performed Hajj, no Mushrik performed Hajj.""'
This is the narration that Al-Bukhari recorded in the Book on Jihad.
Muhammad bin Ishaq reported a narration from Abu Jafar Muhammad bin Ali bin Al-Hussein who said,
""When Bara'ah was revealed to Allah's Messenger, and he had sent Abu Bakr to oversee the Hajj rites for the people, he was asked, `O Messenger of Allah! Why not send this (message) to Abu Bakr?' So he said,
لَاا يُوَدِّي عَنِّي إِلاَّ رَجُلٌ مِنۡ أَهۡلِ بَيۡتِي
It will not be accepted to have been from me if it is not from a man from my family.
Then he called for Ali and said to him,
اخۡرُجۡ بِهذِهِ الۡقِصَّةِ مِنۡ صَدۡرِ بَرَاءَةَ وَأَذِّنۡ فِي النَّاسِ يَوۡمَ النَّحۡرِ إِذَا اجۡتَمَعُوا بِمِنًى أَنَّهُ لَا يَدۡخُلُ الۡجَنَّةَ كَافِرٌ وَلَا يَحُجُّ بَعۡدَ الۡعَامِ مُشۡرِكٌ وَلَا يَطُوفُ بِالۡبَيۡتِ عُرۡيَانٌ وَمَنۡ كَانَ لَهُ عِنۡدَ رَسُولِ اللهِ صلى الله عليه وسلّم عَهۡدٌ فَهُوَ لَهُ إِلَى مُدَّتِه
Take this section from the beginning of Bara'ah and proclaim to the people on the day of the Sacrifice while they are gathered at Mina that no disbeliever will enter Paradise, no idolator will be permitted to perform Hajj after the year, there will be no Tawaf while naked, and whoever has a covenant with Allah's Messenger (peace be upon him), then it shall be valid until the time of its expiration.
Ali rode the camel of Allah's Messenger named Al-Adba until he caught up with Abu Bakr in route. When Abu Bakr saw him he said, `Are you here as a commander or a follower.'
Ali replied, `A follower.'
They continued on. Abu Bakr lead the people in Hajj while the Arabs were camping in their normal locations from Jahiliyyah. On the day of Sacrifice, Ali bin Abi Talib stood and proclaimed,
`O people! No disbeliever will be admitted into Paradise, no idolator will be permitted to perform Hajj next year, there shall be no Tawaf while naked, and whoever has a covenant with Allah's Messenger, then it shall be valid until its time of expiration.'
So no idolator performed Hajj after that year, Tawaf around the House while naked ceased.
Then they returned to Allah's Messenger. So this was the declaration of innocence, whoever among the idolators had no treaty, then he had a treaty of peace for one year, if he had a particular treaty, then it was valid until its date of expiration."
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