Word by Word
And when the earth is flattened out,
and when the earth is stretched out, [when] its width is increased, just as a piece of leather is stretched, so that no edifice or mountain remains upon it,
Tafsir of Surah Al-Inshiqaq
Splitting the Heavens asunder and stretching the Earth forth on the Day of Resurrection
إِذَا السَّمَاء انشَقَّتۡ
When the heaven is split asunder,
This refers to the Day of Judgement
And listens to and obeys its Lord,
meaning, it listens to its Lord and obeys His command to split apart. This will occur on the Day of Judgement.
and it must do so.
meaning, it is right for it to obey the command of its Lord, because it is great and cannot be rejected, nor overcome. Rather it overpowers everything and everything is submissive to it.
Then Allah says,
وَإِذَا الاۡإَرۡضُ مُدَّتۡ
And when the earth is stretched forth,
meaning, when the earth is expanded, spread out and extended.
Then He says,
وَأَلۡقَتۡ مَا فِيهَا وَتَخَلَّتۡ
And has cast out all that was in it and became empty.
meaning, it throws out the dead inside of it, and it empties itself of them.
This was said by Mujahid, Sa`id, and Qatadah.
وَأَذِنَتۡ لِرَبِّهَا وَحُقَّتۡ
And listens to and obeys its Lord, and it must do so.
The explanation of this is the same as what has preceded.
The Recompense for Deeds is True
يَا أَيُّهَا الاۡاِنسَانُ إِنَّكَ كَادِحٌ إِلَى رَبِّكَ كَدۡحًا
Verily, you are returning towards your Lord with your deeds and actions, a sure returning,
meaning, `verily you are hastening to your Lord and working deeds.'
and you will meet.
`Then you will meet that which you did of good or evil.'
A proof for this is what Abu Dawud At-Tayalisi recorded from Jabir, that the Messenger of Allah said,
قَالَ جِبۡرِيلُ يَا مُحَمَّدُ
عِشۡ مَا شِيۡتَ فَإِنَّكَ مَيِّتٌ
وَأَحۡبِبۡ مَنۡ شِيۡتَ فَإِنَّكَ مُفَارِقُهُ
وَاعۡمَلۡ مَا شِيۡتَ فَإِنَّكَ مُلَاقِيه
Jibril said, O Muhammad!
- Live how you wish, for verily you will die;
- love what you wish, for verily you will part with it;
- and do what you wish, for verily you will meet it (your deed).
There are some people who refer the pronoun back to the statement your Lord.
Thus, they hold the Ayah to mean, and you will meet your Lord.
This means that He will reward you for your work, and pay you for your efforts. Therefore, both of these two views are connected.
Al-`Awfi recorded from Ibn Abbas that he said explaining,
يأَيُّهَا الاأِنسَـنُ إِنَّكَ كَادِحٌ إِلَى رَبِّكَ كَدۡحاً
(O man! Verily, you are returning towards your Lord with your deeds and actions, a sure returning),
Whatever deed you do, you will meet Allah with it, whether it is good or bad.
The Presentation and the Discussion that will take place during the Reckoning
Then Allah says,
فَأَمَّا مَنۡ أُوتِيَ كِتَابَهُ بِيَمِينِهِ
فَسَوۡفَ يُحَاسَبُ حِسَابًا يَسِيرًا
Then as for him who will be given his Record in his right hand, he surely, will receive an easy reckoning,
meaning, easy without any difficulty.
This means that he will not be investigated for all the minute details of his deeds. For verily, whoever is reckoned like that, he will certainly be destroyed.
Imam Ahmad recorded from A'ishah that the Messenger of Allah said,
مَنۡ نُوقِشَ الۡحِسَابَ عُذِّب
Whoever is interrogated during the reckoning, then he will be punished.
A'ishah then said, But didn't Allah say,
فَسَوۡفَ يُحَاسَبُ حِسَاباً يَسِيراً
(He surely will receive an easy reckoning),
The Prophet replied,
لَيۡسَ ذَاكِ بِالۡحِسَابِ وَلَــكِنۡ ذلِكِ الۡعَرۡضُ مَنۡ نُوقِشَ الۡحِسَابَ يَوۡمَ الۡقِيَامَةِ عُذِّب
That is not during to the Reckoning, rather it is referring to the presentation. Whoever is interrogated during the Reckoning on the Day of Judgement, then he will be punished.
This Hadith has also been recorded by Al-Bukhari, Muslim, At-Tirmidhi, An-Nasa'i and Ibn Jarir.
In reference to Allah's statement,
وَيَنقَلِبُ إِلَى أَهۡلِهِ مَسۡرُورًا
And will return to his family Masrur!
This means that he will return to his family in Paradise.
This was said by Qatadah and Ad-Dahhak.
They also said,
Masrur means happy and delighted by what Allah has given him.
وَأَمَّا مَنۡ أُوتِيَ كِتَابَهُ وَرَاء ظَهۡرِهِ
But whosoever is given his Record behind his back,
meaning, he will be given his Book in his left hand, behind his back, while his hand is bent behind him.
فَسَوۡفَ يَدۡعُو ثُبُورًا
He will invoke destruction,
meaning, loss and destruction.
إِنَّهُ كَانَ فِي أَهۡلِهِ مَسۡرُورًا
And he shall enter a blazing Fire, and made to taste its burning. Verily, he was among his people in joy!
meaning, happy. He did not think about the consequences, nor feared what (future) was in front of him. His light happiness will be followed by long grief.
إِنَّهُ ظَنَّ أَن لَّن يَحُورَ
Verily, he thought that he would never return!
meaning, he used to believe that he would not return to Allah, nor would Allah bring him back (to life) after his death.
This was said by Ibn Abbas, Qatadah and others.
Allah then says,
بَلَى إِنَّ رَبَّهُ كَانَ بِهِ بَصِيرًا
Yes! Verily, his Lord has been ever beholding him!
meaning, certainly Allah will repeat his creation just as he began his creation, and He will reward him based upon his deeds, whether they were good or bad.
He was ever watchful of him,
meaning All-Knowing and All-Aware.
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