Word by Word
And those who
some of them
you do it
(there) will be
And those who
some of them
you do it
(there) will be
The Unbelievers are protectors, one of another: Unless ye do this, (protect each other), there would be tumult and oppression on earth, and great mischief.
And those who disbelieve are allies of one another, in terms of [mutual] support and inheritance, and so there is no inheriting between you and them. Unless you do this, [unless] you ally yourselves with the believers and sever relations with the disbelievers, there will be sedition in the land and great corruption, with disbelief gaining power and Islam becoming weak.
The Muhajirin and Al-Ansar are the Supporters of One Another
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ امَنُواۡ وَهَاجَرُواۡ وَجَاهَدُواۡ بِأَمۡوَالِهِمۡ وَأَنفُسِهِمۡ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ وَالَّذِينَ اوَواۡ وَّنَصَرُواۡ أُوۡلَـيِكَ بَعۡضُهُمۡ أَوۡلِيَاء بَعۡضٍ
8:72 Verily, those who believed, and emigrated and strove hard and fought with their property and their lives in the cause of Allah as well as those who gave (them) asylum and help, -- these are (all) allies to one another.
Here Allah mentions the types of believers, dividing them into the Muhajirin, who left their homes and estates, emigrating to give support to Allah and His Messenger to establish His religion. They gave up their wealth and themselves in this cause. There are also the Ansar, the Muslims of Al-Madinah, who gave asylum to their Muhajirin brethren in their own homes and comforted them with their wealth. They also gave aid to Allah and His Messenger by fighting alongside the Muhajirun. Certainly they are,
بَعۡضُهُمۡ أَوۡلِيَاء بَعۡضٍ
(allies to one another), for each one of them has more right to the other than anyone else.
This is why Allah's Messenger forged ties of brotherhood between the Muhajirin and Ansar, as Al-Bukhari recorded from Ibn Abbas.
They used to inherit from each other, having more right to inheritance than the deceased man's relatives, until Allah abrogated that practice with the fixed share for near relatives.
Imam Ahmad recorded that Jarir bin Abdullah Al-Bajali said that the Messenger of Allah said,
الۡمُهَاجِرُون وَالاَۡنۡصَارُ أَوۡلِيَاءُ بَعۡضُهُمۡ لِبَعۡضٍ وَالطُّلَقَاءُ مِنۡ قُرَيۡشٍ وَالۡعُتَقَاءُ مِنۡ ثَقِيفٍ بَعۡضُهُمۡ أَوۡلِيَاءُ بَعۡضٍ إِلَى يَوۡمِ الۡقِيَامَة
The Muhajirun and Al-Ansar are the supporters of each other, while the Tulaqa of Quraysh (whom the Prophet set free after conquering Makkah) and Utaqa from Thaqif (whom the Prophet set free from captivity after the battle of Hunayn) are supporters of each other until the Day of Resurrection.
Only Ahmad collected this Hadith.
Allah praised the Muhajirin and the Ansar in several Ayat of His Book and His Messenger (also praised them too).
وَالسَّـبِقُونَ الاٌّوَّلُونَ مِنَ الۡمُهَـجِرِينَ وَالَانۡصَـرِ وَالَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوهُم بِإِحۡسَانٍ رَّضِىَ اللَّهُ عَنۡهُمۡ وَرَضُواۡ عَنۡهُ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُمۡ جَنَّـتٍ تَجۡرِي تَحۡتَهَا الَانۡهَـرُ
And the foremost to embrace Islam of the Muhajirun and the Ansar and also those who followed them exactly. Allah is well-pleased with them as they are well-pleased with Him. He has prepared for them gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise). (9:100)
لَقَدۡ تَابَ الله عَلَى النَّبِىِّ وَالۡمُهَـجِرِينَ وَالاٌّنصَـرِ الَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوهُ فِى سَاعَةِ الۡعُسۡرَةِ
Allah has forgiven the Prophet, the Muhajirin and the Ansar who followed him in the time of distress. (9:117)
لِلۡفُقَرَاءِ الۡمُهَـجِرِينَ الَّذِينَ أُخۡرِجُواۡ مِن دِيَـرِهِمۡ وَأَمۡوَلِهِمۡ يَبۡتَغُونَ فَضۡلً مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَرِضۡوَناً وَيَنصُرُونَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ أُوۡلَـيِكَ هُمُ الصَّـدِقُونَ
وَالَّذِينَ تَبَوَّءُوا الدَّارَ وَالاِيمَـنَ مِن قَبۡلِهِمۡ يُحِبُّونَ مَنۡ هَاجَرَ إِلَيۡهِمۡ وَلَا يَجِدُونَ فِى صُدُورِهِمۡ حَاجَةً مِّمَّأ أُوتُواۡ وَيُوۡثِرُونَ عَلَى أَنفُسِهِمۡ وَلَوۡ كَانَ بِهِمۡ خَصَاصَةٌ
(And there is also a share in this booty) for the poor Muhajirin, who were expelled from their homes and their property, seeking bounties from Allah and (His) good pleasure, and helping Allah and His Messenger. Such are indeed the truthful.
And those who, before them, had homes (in Al-Madinah) and adopted the faith, love those who emigrate to them, and have no jealousy in their breasts for that which they have been given, and give them (emigrants) preference over themselves even though they were in need of that. (59:8-9)
The best comment on Allah's statement,
وَلَا يَجِدُونَ فِى صُدُورِهِمۡ حَاجَةً مِّمَّأ أُوتُواۡ
(...and have no jealousy in their breasts for that which they have been given) is that it means,
they do not envy the Muhajirin for the rewards that Allah gave them for their emigration.
These Ayat indicate that the Muhajirin are better in grade than the Ansar, and there is a consensus on this ruling among the scholars.
The Believers Who did not emigrate did not yet receive the Benefits of Wilayah
وَالَّذِينَ امَنُواۡ وَلَمۡ يُهَاجِرُواۡ مَا لَكُم مِّن وَلَايَتِهِم مِّن شَيۡءٍ حَتَّى يُهَاجِرُواۡ
And as to those who believed but did not emigrate, you owe no duty of protection to them until they emigrate,
This is the third category of believers, those who believed, but did not perform Hijrah and instead remained in their areas. They do not have any share in the war booty or in the fifth (designated for Allah and His Messenger, the relatives of the Prophet, the orphans, the poor and the wayfarer), unless they attend battle.
Imam Ahmad recorded that Buraydah bin Al-Hasib Al-Aslami said,
""When the Messenger of Allah would send a commander with an expedition force or an army, he would advise him to have Taqwa of Allah and be kind to the Muslims under his command.
He used to say,
اغۡزُوا بِاسۡمِ اللهِ
فِي سَبِيلِ اللهِ
قَاتِلُوا مَنۡ كَفَرَ بِاللهِ
Fight in the Name of Allah,
in the cause of Allah.
Fight those who disbelieve in Allah.
إِذَا لَقِيتَ عَدُوَّكَ مِنَ الۡمُشۡرِكِينَ فَادۡعُهُمۡ إِلَى إِحۡدَى ثَلَثِ خِصَالٍ أَوۡ خِلَلٍ فَأَيَّتُهُنَّ مَا أَجَابُوكَ إِلَيۡهَا فَاقۡبَلۡ مِنۡهُمۡ وَكُفَّ عَنۡهُمۡ
When you meet your Mushrik enemy, then call them to one of three choices, and whichever they agree to, then accept it and turn away from them.
ادۡعُهُمۡ إِلَى الاِۡسۡلَمِ فَإِنۡ أَجَابُوكَ فَاقۡبَلۡ مِنۡهُمۡ وَكُفَّ عَنۡهُمۡ
Call them to embrace Islam, and if they agree, accept it from them and turn away from them.
ثُمَّ ادۡعُهُمۡ إِلَى التَّحَوُّلِ مِنۡ دَارِهِمۡ إِلَى دَارِ الۡمُهَاجِرِينَ وَأَعۡلِمۡهُمۡ إِنۡ فَعَلُوا ذَلِكَ أَنَّ لَهُمۡ مَا لِلۡمُهَاجِرِينَ وَأَنَّ عَلَيۡهِمۡ مَا عَلَى الۡمُهَاجِرِينَ
Then call them to leave their area and come to areas in which the Muhajirin reside. Make known to them that if they do this, they will have the rights, as well as, the duties of the Muhajirin.
فَإِنۡ أَبَوۡا وَاخۡتَارُوا دَارَهُمۡ فَأَعۡلِمۡهُمۡ أَنَّهُمۡ يَكُونُونَ كَأَعۡرَابِ الۡمُسۡلِمِينَ يَجۡرِي عَلَيۡهِمۡ حُكۡمُ اللهِ الَّذِي يَجۡرِي عَلَى الۡمُوۡمِنِينَ وَلَاإ يَكُونُ لَهُمۡ فِي الۡفَيۡءِ وَالۡغَنِيمَةِ نَصِيبٌ إِلاَّ أَنۡ يُجَاهِدُوا مَعَ الۡمُسۡلِمِينَ
If they refuse and decide to remain in their area, make known to them that they will be just like Muslim Bedouins, and that Allah's law applies to them just as it does to all believers. However, they will not have a share in the war booty orFai' (booty without war), unless they perform Jihad along with Muslims.
فَإِنۡ هُمۡ أَبَوۡا فَادۡعُهُمۡ إِلَى إِعۡطَاءِ الۡجِزۡيَةِ فَإِنۡ أَجَابُوا فَاقۡبَلۡ مِنۡهُمۡ وَكُفَّ عَنۡهُمۡ
If they refuse all of this, then call them to pay the Jizyah, and if they accept, then take it from them and turn away from them.
فَإِنۡ أَبَوۡا فَاسۡتَعِنۡ بِاللهِ ثُمَّ قَاتِلۡهُم
If they refuse all these (three) options, then trust in Allah and fight them.
Muslim collected this Hadith.
Allah said next,
وَإِنِ اسۡتَنصَرُوكُمۡ فِي الدِّينِ فَعَلَيۡكُمُ النَّصۡرُ
But if they seek your help in religion, it is your duty to help them.
Allah commands, if these Bedouins, who did not perform Hijrah, ask you to aid them against their enemy, then aid them. It is incumbent on you to aid them in this case, because they are your brothers in Islam, unless they ask you to aid them against disbelievers with whom you have a fixed-term treaty of peace. In that case, do not betray your treaties or break your promises with those whom you have treaties of peace.
إِلاَّ عَلَى قَوۡمٍ بَيۡنَكُمۡ وَبَيۡنَهُم مِّيثَاقٌ
except against a people with whom you have a treaty of mutual alliance;
This was reported from Ibn Abbas.
وَاللّهُ بِمَا تَعۡمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ
and Allah is the All-Seer of what you do.
The Disbelievers are Allies of Each Other; the Muslims are not their Allies
وَالَّذينَ كَفَرُواۡ بَعۡضُهُمۡ أَوۡلِيَاء بَعۡضٍ
And those who disbelieve are allies of one another,
After Allah mentioned that the believers are the supporters of one another, He severed all ties of support between them and the disbelievers.
In his Mustadrak, Al-Hakim recorded that Usamah said that the Prophet said,
لَاا يَتَوَارَثُ أَهۡلُ مِلَّتَيۡنِ وَلَاا يَرِثُ مُسۡلِمٌ كَافِرًا وَلَاا كَافِرٌ مُسۡلِمًا
No followers of two religions inherit from each other. Therefore, neither a Muslim inherits from a disbeliever nor a disbeliever from a Muslim.
The Prophet recited this Ayah,
وَالَّذينَ كَفَرُواۡ بَعۡضُهُمۡ أَوۡلِيَاء بَعۡضٍ إِلاَّ تَفۡعَلُوهُ تَكُن فِتۡنَةٌ فِي الَارۡضِ وَفَسَادٌ كَبِيرٌ
And those who disbelieve are supporters of one another, (and) if you (Muslims) do not do so (protect one another), there will be Fitnah on the earth, and great corruption.)
Al-Hakim said, ""Its chain is Sahih, and they did not record it.""
However, the following, from Usamah bin Zayd, is in the Two Sahihs; the Messenger of Allah said,
لَاا يَرِثُ الۡمُسۡلِمُ الۡكَافِرَ وَلَاا الۡكَافِرُ الۡمُسۡلِم
Neither a Muslim inherits from a disbeliever nor a disbeliever inherits from a Muslim.
Allah said next,
إِلاَّ تَفۡعَلُوهُ تَكُن فِتۡنَةٌ فِي الَارۡضِ وَفَسَادٌ كَبِيرٌ
If you do not do so, there will be Fitnah and oppression on the earth, and a great corruption,
meaning, if you do not shun the idolators and offer your loyalty to the believers, Fitnah will overcome the people. Then confusion (polytheism and corruption) will be rampant, for the believers will be mixed with disbelievers, resulting in tremendous, widespread trials (corruption and mischief) between people
Believers in Truth
وَالَّذِينَ امَنُواۡ وَهَاجَرُواۡ وَجَاهَدُواۡ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ وَالَّذِينَ اوَواۡ وَّنَصَرُواۡ أُولَـيِكَ هُمُ الۡمُوۡمِنُونَ حَقًّا لَّهُم مَّغۡفِرَةٌ وَرِزۡقٌ كَرِيمٌ
And those who believed, and emigrated and strove hard in the cause of Allah (Al-Jihad), as well as those who gave (them) asylum and aid -- these are the believers in truth, for them is forgiveness and a generous provision.
After Allah affirmed the ruling of loyalty and protection between the believers in this life, He then mentioned their destination in the Hereafter. Allah also affirmed the faith of the believers, just as mentioned in the beginning of this Surah, and that He will reward them with forgiveness and by erasing their sins, if they have any. He also promised them honorable provisions that are abundant, pure, everlasting and eternal; provisions that never end or run out, nor will they ever cause boredom, for they are delightful and come in great varieties
وَالَّذِينَ امَنُواۡ مِن بَعۡدُ وَهَاجَرُواۡ وَجَاهَدُواۡ مَعَكُمۡ فَأُوۡلَـيِكَ مِنكُمۡ
And those who believed afterwards, and emigrated and strove hard along with you, they are of you.
Allah then mentioned that those who follow the path of the believers in faith and performing good deeds, will be with them in the Hereafter.
Just as Allah said,
And the foremost to embrace Islam... (9:100), until the end of the Ayah.
He also said,
وَالَّذِينَ جَأءُوا مِن بَعۡدِهِمۡ
And those who came after them (59:10)
A Hadith that is in the Two Sahihs, which is Mutawatir and has several authentic chains of narrations, mentions that the Messenger of Allah said,
الۡمَرۡءُ مَعَ مَنۡ أَحَب
One will be in the company of those whom he loves.
Another Hadith states,
مَنۡ أَحَبَّ قَوۡمًا فَهُوَ مِنۡهُم
He who loves a people is one of them,
and in another narration, he said,
will be gathered with them (on the Day of Resurrection).
Inheritance is for Designated Degrees of Relatives
وَأُوۡلُواۡ الَارۡحَامِ بَعۡضُهُمۡ أَوۡلَى بِبَعۡضٍ فِي كِتَابِ اللّهِ
But kindred by blood are nearer to one another (regarding inheritance) in the decree ordained by Allah,
meaning, in Allah's decision.
This Ayah encompasses all relatives, not only the degrees of relative who do not have a fixed, designated share in the inheritance, as some people claim and use this Ayah to argue.
According to Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, Qatadah and several others, this Ayah abrogated inheriting from those with whom one had ties of treaties or brotherhood, as was the case in the beginning of Islam. So it applies to all relatives, and as for those who do not inherit, then this is supported by the Hadith,
إِنَّ اللهَ قَدۡ أَعۡطَى كُلَّ ذِي حَقَ حَقَّهُ فَلَ وَصِيَّةٍ لِوَارِث
Indeed Allah had allotted every right to the one who deserves it, so there may be no will for an heir.
Therefore, this Ayah also includes those who have a fixed share of inheritance. Allah knows best.
إِنَّ اللّهَ بِكُلِّ شَيۡءٍ عَلِيمٌ
Verily, Allah is the All-Knower of everything.
This is the end of the Tafsir of Surah Al-Anfal, all praise and thanks are for Allah, in Him we trust, and He is sufficient for us, what an excellent supporter He is."
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