Ayah

Word by Word
إِذۡ
When
أَنتُم
you (were)
بِٱلۡعُدۡوَةِ
on side of the valley
ٱلدُّنۡيَا
the nearer
وَهُم
and they
بِٱلۡعُدۡوَةِ
(were) on the side
ٱلۡقُصۡوَىٰ
the farther
وَٱلرَّكۡبُ
and the caravan
أَسۡفَلَ
(was) lower
مِنكُمۡۚ
than you
وَلَوۡ
And if
تَوَاعَدتُّمۡ
you (had) made an appointment
لَٱخۡتَلَفۡتُمۡ
certainly you would have failed
فِي
in
ٱلۡمِيعَٰدِ
the appointment
وَلَٰكِن
But
لِّيَقۡضِيَ
that might accomplish
ٱللَّهُ
Allah
أَمۡرٗا
a matter
كَانَ
(that) was
مَفۡعُولٗا
destined
لِّيَهۡلِكَ
that (might be) destroyed
مَنۡ
(those) who
هَلَكَ
(were to be) destroyed
عَنۢ
on
بَيِّنَةٖ
a clear evidence
وَيَحۡيَىٰ
and (might) live
مَنۡ
(those) who
حَيَّ
(were to) live
عَنۢ
on
بَيِّنَةٖۗ
a clear evidence
وَإِنَّ
And indeed
ٱللَّهَ
Allah
لَسَمِيعٌ
(is) All-Hearing
عَلِيمٌ
All-Knowing
إِذۡ
When
أَنتُم
you (were)
بِٱلۡعُدۡوَةِ
on side of the valley
ٱلدُّنۡيَا
the nearer
وَهُم
and they
بِٱلۡعُدۡوَةِ
(were) on the side
ٱلۡقُصۡوَىٰ
the farther
وَٱلرَّكۡبُ
and the caravan
أَسۡفَلَ
(was) lower
مِنكُمۡۚ
than you
وَلَوۡ
And if
تَوَاعَدتُّمۡ
you (had) made an appointment
لَٱخۡتَلَفۡتُمۡ
certainly you would have failed
فِي
in
ٱلۡمِيعَٰدِ
the appointment
وَلَٰكِن
But
لِّيَقۡضِيَ
that might accomplish
ٱللَّهُ
Allah
أَمۡرٗا
a matter
كَانَ
(that) was
مَفۡعُولٗا
destined
لِّيَهۡلِكَ
that (might be) destroyed
مَنۡ
(those) who
هَلَكَ
(were to be) destroyed
عَنۢ
on
بَيِّنَةٖ
a clear evidence
وَيَحۡيَىٰ
and (might) live
مَنۡ
(those) who
حَيَّ
(were to) live
عَنۢ
on
بَيِّنَةٖۗ
a clear evidence
وَإِنَّ
And indeed
ٱللَّهَ
Allah
لَسَمِيعٌ
(is) All-Hearing
عَلِيمٌ
All-Knowing

Translation

Remember ye were on the hither side of the valley, and they on the farther side, and the caravan on lower ground than ye. Even if ye had made a mutual appointment to meet, ye would certainly have failed in the appointment: But (thus ye met), that Allah might accomplish a matter already enacted; that those who died might die after a clear Sign (had been given), and those who lived might live after a Clear Sign (had been given). And verily Allah is He Who heareth and knoweth (all things).

Tafsir

When (idh substitutes for yawma, 'the day') you were on the nearer bank, the one nearer to Medina (read 'udwa or 'idwa, meaning 'the side of a valley'), and they were on the yonder bank, the one further from it, and the cavalcade, the caravan, was, in a place, below you, the coastal side; and had you, and the [enemy] band, agreed to meet, for battle, you would have surely failed to keep meeting; but, He brought you together at a different time, that God might conclude a matter that was to be done, through His knowledge - namely, the victory of Islam and the obliteration of unbelief - He did this so, that he who perished might perish, might be a disbeliever [even], after a clear proof, that is, after a manifest proof has been established against him, namely, the triumph of the believers, despite their small number, over the larger [enemy] army; and that he who survived might live, might believe, after a clear proof; surely God is Hearing, Knowing.

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