Ayah

Word by Word
وَمَا
But not
كَانَ
is
ٱللَّهُ
(for) Allah
لِيُعَذِّبَهُمۡ
that He punishes them
وَأَنتَ
while you
فِيهِمۡۚ
(are) among them
وَمَا
and not
كَانَ
is
ٱللَّهُ
Allah
مُعَذِّبَهُمۡ
the One Who punishes them
وَهُمۡ
while they
يَسۡتَغۡفِرُونَ
seek forgiveness
وَمَا
But not
كَانَ
is
ٱللَّهُ
(for) Allah
لِيُعَذِّبَهُمۡ
that He punishes them
وَأَنتَ
while you
فِيهِمۡۚ
(are) among them
وَمَا
and not
كَانَ
is
ٱللَّهُ
Allah
مُعَذِّبَهُمۡ
the One Who punishes them
وَهُمۡ
while they
يَسۡتَغۡفِرُونَ
seek forgiveness

Translation

But Allah was not going to send them a penalty whilst thou wast amongst them; nor was He going to send it whilst they could ask for pardon.

Tafsir

God then says: But God was not about to chastise them, for what they requested, while you were among them, for when chastisement is sent down it is all-encompassing, and no community was ever chastised except after its prophet and the believers had departed from it; nor was God about to chastise them while they sought forgiveness, crying, as they performed the circumambulations: 'Your forgiveness! Your forgiveness!'; it is also said that this [last clause] refers to those oppressed believers among them, similar to where God says Had they been clearly separated, verily We would have chastised the disbelievers among them with a painful chastisement [Q. 48:25].

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