Word by Word
(it was) made
and so that might be at rest
And (there is) no
(it was) made
and so that might be at rest
And (there is) no
Allah made it but a message of hope, and an assurance to your hearts: (in any case) there is no help except from Allah: and Allah is Exalted in Power, Wise.
And God appointed it, that is, the reinforcement, only as good tidings, and that your hearts might thereby be reassured. Victory comes only from God: surely God is Mighty, Wise.
Following the Messenger is Better for the Believers
كَمَا أَخۡرَجَكَ رَبُّكَ مِن بَيۡتِكَ بِالۡحَقِّ وَإِنَّ فَرِيقاً مِّنَ الۡمُوۡمِنِينَ لَكَارِهُونَ
As your Lord caused you to go out from your home with the truth; and verily, a party among the believers disliked it.
After Allah described the believers as fearing their Lord, resolving matters of dispute between themselves and obeying Allah and His Messenger, He then said here,
""since you disputed about dividing war spoils and differed with each other about them, Allah took them away from you. He and His Messenger then divided them in truth and justice, thus ensuring continued benefit for all of you. Similarly, you disliked meeting the armed enemy in battle, who marched in support of their religion and to protect their caravan. You disliked fighting, so Allah decided that battle should occur and made you meet your enemy, without planning to do so on your part.'
This incident carried guidance, light, victory and triumph.
كُتِبَ عَلَيۡكُمُ الۡقِتَالُ وَهُوَ كُرۡهٌ لَّكُمۡ وَعَسَى أَن تَكۡرَهُواۡ شَيۡيًا وَهُوَ خَيۡرٌ لَّكُمۡ وَعَسَى أَن تُحِبُّواۡ شَيۡيًا وَهُوَ شَرٌّ لَّكُمۡ وَاللَّهُ يَعۡلَمُ وَأَنتُمۡ لَا تَعۡلَمُونَ
Jihad is ordained for you though you dislike it, and it may be that you dislike a thing which is good for you, and that you like a thing which is bad for you. Allah knows but you do not know. (2:216)
وَإِنَّ فَرِيقاً مِّنَ الۡمُوۡمِنِينَ لَكَارِهُونَ
(And verily, a party among the believers disliked) ""to meet (the armed) idolators.""
يُجَادِلُونَكَ فِي الۡحَقِّ بَعۡدَمَا تَبَيَّنَ كَأَنَّمَا يُسَاقُونَ إِلَى الۡمَوۡتِ وَهُمۡ يَنظُرُونَ
Disputing with you concerning the truth after it was made manifest, as if they were being driven to death, while they were looking (at it).
يُجَادِلُونَكَ فِي الۡحَقِّ بَعۡدَمَا تَبَيَّنَ
(Disputing with you concerning the truth after it was made manifest), Some have commented,
""(Allah says:) they ask and argue with you about Al-Anfal just as they argued with you when you went out for the battle of Badr, saying, `You marched with us to confiscate the caravan. You did not inform us that there will be fighting and that we should prepare for it.""'
وَإِذۡ يَعِدُكُمُ اللّهُ إِحۡدَى الطَّايِفَتِيۡنِ أَنَّهَا لَكُمۡ وَتَوَدُّونَ أَنَّ غَيۡرَ ذَاتِ الشَّوۡكَةِ تَكُونُ لَكُمۡ وَيُرِيدُ اللّهُ أَن يُحِقَّ الحَقَّ بِكَلِمَاتِهِ وَيَقۡطَعَ دَابِرَ الۡكَافِرِينَ
لِيُحِقَّ الۡحَقَّ وَيُبۡطِلَ الۡبَاطِلَ وَلَوۡ كَرِهَ الۡمُجۡرِمُونَ
And (remember) when Allah promised you (Muslims) one of the two parties, that it should be yours; you wished that the one not armed should be yours, but Allah willed to justify the truth by His Words and to cut off the roots of the disbelievers. That He might cause the truth to triumph and bring falsehood to nothing, even though the criminals hate it.
وَيُرِيدُ اللّهُ أَن يُحِقَّ الحَقَّ بِكَلِمَاتِهِ
(but Allah willed to justify the truth by His Words),
`He willed for you to meet the armed enemy (rather than the caravan) so that He makes you prevail above them and gain victory over them, making His religion apparent and Islam victorious and dominant above all religions. He has perfect knowledge of the consequences of all things; you are surrounded by His wise planning, although people only like what appears favorable to them,'
كُتِبَ عَلَيۡكُمُ الۡقِتَالُ وَهُوَ كُرۡهٌ لَّكُمۡ وَعَسَى أَن تَكۡرَهُواۡ شَيۡيًا وَهُوَ خَيۡرٌ لَّكُمۡ وَعَسَى أَن تُحِبُّواۡ شَيۡيًا وَهُوَ شَرٌّ لَّكُمۡ
Jihad (fighting in Allah's cause) is ordained for you (Muslims) though you dislike it, and it may be that you dislike a thing which is good for you and that you like a thing which is bad for you. (2:216)
Muhammad bin Ishaq reported that Abdullah bin Abbas said,
""When the Messenger of Allah heard that Abu Sufyan had left the Sham area (headed towards Makkah with Quraysh's caravan), he encouraged the Muslims to march forth to intercept them, saying,
هَذِهِ عِيرُ قُرَيۡشٍ فِيهَا أَمۡوَالُهُمۡ فَاخۡرُجُوا إِلَيۡهَا لَعَلَّ اللهَ أَن يُّنَفِّلَكُمُوهَا
This is the caravan of Quraysh carrying their property, so march forth to intercept it; Allah might make it as war spoils for you.
The people started mobilizing Muslims, although some of them did not mobilize, thinking that the Prophet would not have to fight.
Abu Sufyan was cautiously gathering information on the latest news spying on travelers he met, out of fear for the caravan, especially upon entering the area of Hijaz (Western Arabia). Some travelers told him that Muhammad had mobilized his companions for his caravan. He was anxious and hired Damdam bin Amr Al-Ghifari to go to Makkah and mobilize the Quraysh to protect their caravan, informing them that Muhammad had mobilized his Companions to intercept the caravan.
Damdam bin Amr went in a hurry to Makkah. Meanwhile, the Messenger of Allah marched with his companions until he reached a valley called Dhafiran. When he left the valley, he camped and was informed that the Quraysh had marched to protect their caravan.
The Messenger of Allah consulted the people for advice and conveyed the news about Quraysh to them. Abu Bakr stood up and said something good, and so did Umar.
Al-Miqdad bin Amr stood up and said,
`O Allah's Messenger! March to what Allah has commanded you, for we are with you. By Allah! We will not say to you what the Children of Israel said to Musa,
فَاذۡهَبۡ أَنتَ وَرَبُّكَ فَقَاتِل إِنَّا هَـهُنَا قَـعِدُونَ
(""So go you and your Lord and fight you two, we are sitting right here""). (5:24)
Rather, go you and Your Lord and fight, we will be fighting along with you both. By He Who has sent you with Truth! If you decide to take us to Birk-ul-Ghimad, we will fight along with you until you reach it.'
The Messenger of Allah said good words to Al-Miqdad and invoked Allah for his benefit. The Messenger of Allah again said,
أَشِيرُوا عَلَيَّ أَيُّهَا النَّاس
Give me your opinion, O people!
wanting to hear from the Ansar. This is because the majority of the people with him then were the Ansar.
When the Ansar gave the Prophet their pledge of obedience at Al-Aqabah, they proclaimed, `O Allah's Messenger! We are not bound by this pledge unless, and until, you arrive in our land. When you have arrived in our area, you are under our protection, and we shall protect you in the same manner we protect our children and wives.'
The Messenger of Allah feared that the Ansar might think that they are not obliged to support him except from his enemies who attack Al-Madinah, not to march with him to an enemy in other areas. When the Prophet said this, Sa`d bin Mu`adh asked him, `O Allah's Messenger! Is it us whom you meant?'
The Prophet answered in the positive.
Sa`d said, `We have faith and believed in you, testified that what you brought is the truth, and gave you our pledges and promises of allegiance and obedience. Therefore, march, O Allah's Messenger, for what Allah has commanded you. Verily, by He Who has sent you in Truth, if you decided to cross this sea (the Red Sea), we will follow you in it, and none among us would stay behind. We do not dislike that we meet our enemy tomorrow. Verily, we are patient in war, fierce in battle. May Allah make you witness what makes your eyes pleased with us. Therefore, march with us with the blessing of Allah.'
The Messenger of Allah was pleased with what Sa`d said and was encouraged by it. He proclaimed,
سِيرُوا عَلَى بَرَكَةِ اللهِ وَأَبۡشِرُوا فَإِنَّ اللهَ قَدۡ وَعَدَنِي إِحۡدَى الطَّايِفَتَيۡنِ وَاللهِ لَكَأَنِّي الاۡنَ أَنۡظُرُ إِلَى مَصَارِعِ الۡقَوم
March with the blessing of Allah and receive the good news. For Allah has indeed promised me one of the two camps (confiscating the caravan or defeating the Quraysh army. By Allah! It is as if I am now looking at the demise of the people (the Quraysh).""
Al-Awfi reported similar from Ibn Abbas.
As-Suddi, Qatadah, Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam; and several others among the Salaf and later generations mentioned similarly, We have just summarized the story as Muhammad bin Ishaq briefed it
Muslims invoke Allah for Help, Allah sends the Angels to help Them
إِذۡ تَسۡتَغِيثُونَ رَبَّكُمۡ فَاسۡتَجَابَ لَكُمۡ أَنِّي مُمِدُّكُم بِأَلۡفٍ مِّنَ الۡمَليِكَةِ مُرۡدِفِينَ
(Remember) when you sought help of your Lord and He answered you (saying):""I will help you with a thousand of the angels Murdifin.""
Al-Bukhari wrote in the book of battles (in his Sahih) under ""Chapter; Allah's statement,
إِذۡ تَسۡتَغِيثُونَ رَبَّكُمۡ فَاسۡتَجَابَ لَكُمۡ
((Remember) when you sought help of your Lord and He answered you) until,
فَإِنَّ اللّهَ شَدِيدُ الۡعِقَابِ
(then verily, Allah is severe in punishment)"" (8:9-13) that Ibn Mas`ud said,
""I was a witness to something that Al-Miqdad bin Al-Aswad did, that I would like more than almost anything else to have been the one who did it. Al-Miqdad came to the Prophet while he was invoking Allah against the idolators and proclaimed, `We will not say as the people of Musa said, ""So go you and your Lord and fight you two.""
Rather, we will fight to your right, to your left, before you and behind you.' I saw the Prophet's face beaming with pleasure because of what Al-Miqdad said to him.""
Al-Bukhari next narrated from Ibn Abbas that on the day of Badr, the Prophet said,
اللَّهُمَّ أَنۡشُدُكَ عَهۡدَكَ وَوَعۡدَكَ اللَّهُمَّ إِنۡ شِيۡتَ لَمۡ تُعۡبَد
O Allah! I invoke You for Your covenant and promise (victory). O Allah! If You decide so (cause our defeat), You will not be worshipped.
Abu Bakr held the Prophet's hand and said, ""Enough.""
The Prophet went out proclaiming,
سَيُهۡزَمُ الۡجَمۡعُ وَيُوَلُّونَ الدُّبُر
Their multitude will be put to flight, and they will show their backs.
An-Nasa'i also collected this Hadith.
بِأَلۡفٍ مِّنَ الۡمَليِكَةِ مُرۡدِفِينَ
(with a thousand of the angels Murdifin),
means, they follow each other in succession, according to Harun bin Hubayrah who narrated this from Ibn Abbas,
(Murdifin), meaning each behind the other in succession.
Ali bin Abi Talhah Al-Walibi reported that Ibn Abbas said,
""Allah supported His Prophet and the believers with a thousand angels, five hundred under the leadership of Jibril on one side and five hundred under the leadership of Mika'il on another side.""
Imams Abu Jafar bin Jarir At-Tabari and Muslim recorded that Ibn Abbas said that Umar said,
""While a Muslim man was pursuing an idolator (during the battle of Badr), he heard the sound of a whip above him and a rider saying, `Come, O Hayzum!' Then he looked at the idolator, who fell to the ground. When he investigated, he found that the idolator's nose had wound and his face torn apart, just as if he received a strike from a whip on it, and the entire face had turned green. The Ansari man came to the Messenger of Allah and told him what had happened and the Messenger replied,
صَدَقۡتَ ذَلِكَ مِنۡ مَدَدِ السَّمَاءِ الثَّالِثَة
You have said the truth, that was from the reinforcements from the third heaven.
The Muslims killed seventy (pagans) in that battle and captured another seventy.
Al-Bukhari also wrote a chapter in his Sahih about the participation of the angels in Badr. He collected a Hadith from Rifa`h bin Rafi Az-Zuraqi, who participated in Badr,
Jibril came to the Prophet and asked him, ""How honored are those who participated in Badr among you?""
The Prophet said,
مِنۡ أَفۡضَلِ الۡمُسۡلِمِين
Among the best Muslims.
Jibril said, ""This is the case with the angels who participated in Badr.""
Al-Bukhari recorded this Hadith.
At-Tabarani also collected it in Al-Mu`jam Al-Kabir, but from Rafi` bin Khadij, which is an apparent mistake. The correct narration is from Rifa`h, as Al-Bukhari recorded it.
In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that;
the Messenger of Allah said to Umar, when Umar suggested that the Prophet have Hatib bin Abi Balta`ah executed,
إِنَّهُ قَدۡ شَهِدَ بَدۡرًا وَمَا يُدۡرِيكَ لَعَلَّ اللهَ قَدِ اطَّلَعَ عَلَى أَهۡلِ بَدۡرٍ فَقَالَ اعۡمَلُوا مَا شِيۡتُمۡ فَقَدۡ غَفَرۡتُ لَكُم
He (Hatib) participated in Badr. How do you know that Allah has not looked at the people of Badr and proclaimed, `Do whatever you want, for I have forgiven you.'
Allah said next
وَمَا جَعَلَهُ اللّهُ إِلاَّ بُشۡرَى
Allah made it only as glad tidings. ..
Allah made sending down the angels and informing you of this fact as glad tidings,
وَلِتَطۡمَيِنَّ بِهِ قُلُوبُكُمۡ
and that your hearts be at rest therewith.
Surely, Allah is able to give you (O Muslims) victory over your enemies, and victory only comes from Him, without need to send the angels,
وَمَا النَّصۡرُ إِلاَّ مِنۡ عِندِ اللّهِ
And there is no victory except from Allah.
Allah said in another Ayah,
فَإِذَا لَقِيتُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواۡ فَضَرۡبَ الرِّقَابِ حَتَّى إِذَا أَثۡخَنتُمُوهُمۡ فَشُدُّواۡ الۡوَثَاقَ فَإِمَّا مَنًّا بَعۡدُ وَإِمَّا فِدَاءً حَتَّى تَضَعَ الۡحَرۡبُ أَوۡزَارَهَا ذَلِكَ وَلَوۡ يَشَأءُ اللَّهُ لَانۡتَصَرَ مِنۡهُمۡ وَلَـكِن لِّيَبۡلُوَ بَعۡضَكُمۡ بِبَعۡضٍ وَالَّذِينَ قُتِلُواۡ فِى سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ فَلَن يُضِلَّ أَعۡمَـلَهُمۡ
سَيَهۡدِيهِمۡ وَيُصۡلِحُ بَالَهُمۡ
وَيُدۡخِلُهُمُ الۡجَنَّةَ عَرَّفَهَا لَهُمۡ
So, when you meet (in fight in Allah's cause) those who disbelieve, smite (their) necks till when you have killed and wounded many of them, then bind a bond firmly (on them, take them as captives). Thereafter (is the time) either for generosity (free them without ransom), or ransom (according to what benefits Islam), until war lays down its burden. Thus, but if it had been Allah's will, He Himself could certainly have punished them (without you). But (He lets you fight) in order to test some of you with others.
But those who are killed in the way of Allah, He will never let their deeds be lost. He will guide them and set right their state. And admit them to Paradise which He has made known to them. (47:4-6)
إِن يَمۡسَسۡكُمۡ قَرۡحٌ فَقَدۡ مَسَّ الۡقَوۡمَ قَرۡحٌ مِّثۡلُهُ وَتِلۡكَ الاٌّيَّامُ نُدَاوِلُهَا بَيۡنَ النَّاسِ وَلِيَعۡلَمَ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواۡ وَيَتَّخِذَ مِنكُمۡ شُهَدَاءَ وَاللَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ الظَّـلِمِينَ
وَلِيُمَحِّصَ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواۡ وَيَمۡحَقَ الۡكَـفِرِينَ
And so are the days (good and not so good), that We give to men by turns, that Allah may test those who believe, and that He may take martyrs from among you. And Allah likes not the wrongdoers.
And that Allah may test (or purify) the believers (from sins) and destroy the disbelievers. (3:140-141)
These are points of wisdom for which Allah has legislated performing Jihad, by the hands of the believers against the disbelievers. Allah used to destroy the previous nations that denied the Prophets, using various disasters that encompassed these rebellious nations. For instance, Allah destroyed the people of Nuh with the flood, `Ad with the wind, Thamud with the scream, the people of Lut with an earthquake and the people of Shu`ayb by the Day of the Shadow. After Allah sent Musa and destroyed his enemy Fir`awn and his soldiers by drowning, He sent down the Tawrah to him in which He legislated fighting against the disbelievers, and this legislation remained in the successive Laws.
وَلَقَدۡ ءَاتَيۡنَا مُوسَى الۡكِتَـبَ مِن بَعۡدِ مَأ أَهۡلَكۡنَا الۡقُرُونَ الاٍّولَى بَصَأيِرَ
And indeed We gave Musa -- after We had destroyed the generations of old -- the Scripture as an enlightenment. (28:43)
It is more humiliating for the disbeliever and more comforting to the hearts of the faithful that the believers kill the disbelievers by their own hands. Allah said to the believers of this Ummah,
قَـتِلُوهُمۡ يُعَذِّبۡهُمُ اللَّهُ بِأَيۡدِيكُمۡ وَيُخۡزِهِمۡ وَيَنۡصُرۡكُمۡ عَلَيۡهِمۡ وَيَشۡفِ صُدُورَ قَوۡمٍ مُّوۡمِنِينَ
Fight against them so that Allah will punish them by your hands, and disgrace them, and give you victory over them, and heal the breasts of a believing people. (9:14)
This is why killing the disbelievers of Quraysh by the hand of their enemies, whom they used to despise, was more humiliating to the disbelievers and comforting to the hearts of the party of faith.
Abu Jahl, for instance, was killed in battle and this was more humiliating for him than dying in his bed, or from lightening, wind, or similar afflictions. Also, Abu Lahab died from a terrible disease (that caused him to stink) and none of his relatives could bear approaching him. They had to wash him with water by sprinkling it from a distance, then threw stones over his corpse, until it was buried under them!
Allah said next,
إِنَّ اللّهَ عَزِيزٌ
Verily, Allah is All-Mighty,
the might is His, His Messengers and the believers, both in this life and the Hereafter.
Allah said in another Ayah,
إِنَّا لَنَنصُرُ رُسُلَنَا وَالَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواۡ فِى الۡحَيَوةِ الدُّنۡيَا وَيَوۡمَ يَقُومُ الاٌّشۡهَـدُ
We will indeed make victorious Our Messengers and those who believe, in this world's life and on the Day when the witnesses will stand forth (Day of Resurrection). (40:51)
Allah said next,
in that He legislated fighting the disbeliever, even though He is able to destroy them and bring their demise by His will and power, all praise and honor is due to Him."
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