Word by Word
(became) as if
they (had) lived
(became) as if
they (had) lived
The men who reject Shu'aib became as if they had never been in the homes where they had flourished: the men who rejected Shu'aib - it was they who were ruined!
Those who denied Shu'ayb (alladheena kadhdhaboo Shu'ayban, this constitutes the subject [of the sentence], the predicate of which is [introduced by the following ka-an, 'as if']), it is as if (ka-an, has been softened, its subject omitted, in other words [understand it as] ka-annahum) they had never dwelt, [never] had residence, there, in those dwelling-places of theirs; those who denied Shu'ayb, they were the losers (the emphasis effected by the repetition of the relative clause [alladheena kadhdhaboo Shu'ayban, 'those who denied Shu'ayb'] and what follows it is intended as a refutation of what they had said previously [sc. 'if you follow Shu'ayb, you shall indeed be losers']).
Story of Shu`ayb, upon him be Peace, and the Land of Madyan
وَإِلَى مَدۡيَنَ أَخَاهُمۡ شُعَيۡبًا
And to (the people of) Madyan, (We sent) their brother Shu`ayb.
Muhammad bin Ishaq said,
They (the people of Madyan) are the descendents of Madyan, son of Midyan, son of Ibrahim. Shu`ayb was the son of Mikil bin Yashjur. And in the Syrian language, his name was Yathrun (Jethro).
I (Ibn Kathir) say,
Madyan was the name of the tribe and also a city that is close to Ma`an on route to the Hijaz (from Ash-Sham).
Allah said in another Ayah,
وَلَمَّا وَرَدَ مَأءَ مَدۡيَنَ وَجَدَ عَلَيۡهِ أُمَّةً مِّنَ النَّاسِ يَسۡقُونَ
And when he arrived at the water (a well) of Madyan he found there a group of men watering (their flocks). (28:23)
They are also the people of Al-Aykah (the Woods), as we will mention later on, Allah willing, and our trust is in Him.
قَالَ يَا قَوۡمِ اعۡبُدُواۡ اللّهَ مَا لَكُم مِّنۡ إِلَـهٍ غَيۡرُهُ
He said:O my people! Worship Allah! You have no other God but Him,
and this is the call of all Messengers,
قَدۡ جَاءتۡكُم بَيِّنَةٌ مِّن رَّبِّكُمۡ
Verily, a clear proof (sign) from your Lord has come unto you;
`Allah has presented the proof and evidences of the truth of what I brought you.'
He then advised and commanded them,
فَأَوۡفُواۡ الۡكَيۡلَ وَالۡمِيزَانَ وَلَا تَبۡخَسُواۡ النَّاسَ أَشۡيَاءهُمۡ
so give full measure and full weight and wrong not men in their things,
meaning, to refrain from cheating people in buying and selling.
They used to treacherously avoid giving full weight and measure.
Allah said in other Ayat,
(Woe to Al-Mutaffifin (those who give less in measure and weight)... (83:1) until He said,
(before the Lord of all that exists). (83:6)
وَلَا تُفۡسِدُواۡ فِي الَارۡضِ بَعۡدَ إِصۡلَحِهَا ذَلِكُمۡ خَيۡرٌ لَّكُمۡ إِن كُنتُم مُّوۡمِنِينَ
and do not do mischief on the earth after it has been set in order, that will be better for you, if you are believers.
These Ayat contain a stern warning and sure promise that we ask Allah to save us from.
Shu`ayb was called `Speaker of the Prophets', because of his eloquent words and eloquent advice, and Allah stated that Shu`ayb said
Prophet Shu`ayb forbade his people from setting up blockades on the roads, saying,
وَلَا تَقۡعُدُواۡ بِكُلِّ صِرَاطٍ تُوعِدُونَ
And sit not on every road, threatening,
According to As-Suddi,
threatening people with death if they do not give up their money, as they were bandits,
Ibn Abbas, Mujahid and several others commented:
the believers who come to Shu`ayb to follow him.
The first meaning is better, because Prophet Shu`ayb first said to them,
(on every road...). He then mentioned the second meaning,
وَتَصُدُّونَ عَن سَبِيلِ اللّهِ مَنۡ امَنَ بِهِ وَتَبۡغُونَهَا عِوَجًا
and hindering from the path of Allah those who believe in Him, and seeking to make it crooked.
meaning, you seek to make the path of Allah crooked and deviated.
وَاذۡكُرُواۡ إِذۡ كُنتُمۡ قَلِيلً فَكَثَّرَكُمۡ
And remember when you were but few, and He multiplied you.
meaning, you were weak because you were few. But you later on became mighty because of your large numbers. Therefore, remember Allah's favor.
وَانظُرُواۡ كَيۡفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الۡمُفۡسِدِينَ
And see what was the end of the mischief-makers.
from the previous nations and earlier generations. See the torment and punishment they suffered, because they disobeyed Allah and rejected His Messengers.
وَإِن كَانَ طَأيِفَةٌ مِّنكُمۡ امَنُواۡ بِالَّذِي أُرۡسِلۡتُ بِهِ وَطَأيِفَةٌ لَّمۡ يۡوۡمِنُواۡ
And if there is a party of you who believes in that with which I have been sent and a party who does not believe,
that is, if you divided concerning me,
so be patient,
that is, then wait and see,
حَتَّى يَحۡكُمَ اللّهُ بَيۡنَنَا
until Allah judges between us, (and you),
وَهُوَ خَيۡرُ الۡحَاكِمِين
and He is the best of judges.
Surely, Allah will award the best end to those who fear and obey Him and He will destroy the disbelievers
Allah describes the way the disbelievers answered His Prophet Shu`ayb and those who believed in him, by threatening them with expulsion from their village, or with forceful reversion to the disbeliever's religion.
قَالَ الۡمَلُ الَّذِينَ اسۡتَكۡبَرُواۡ مِن قَوۡمِهِ لَنُخۡرِجَنَّكَ يَا شُعَيۡبُ وَالَّذِينَ امَنُواۡ مَعَكَ مِن قَرۡيَتِنَا أَوۡ لَتَعُودُنَّ فِي مِلَّتِنَا
The chiefs of those who were arrogant among his people said:""We shall certainly drive you out, O Shu`ayb and those who have believed with you from our town, or else you (all) shall return to our religion.""
The chiefs spoke the words mentioned here to the Messenger Shu`ayb, but intended it for those who followed his religion too.
قَالَ أَوَلَوۡ كُنَّا كَارِهِينَ
He said:""Even though we hate it!""
means, would you force us to do that, even though we hate what you are calling us to
قَدِ افۡتَرَيۡنَا عَلَى اللّهِ كَذِبًا إِنۡ عُدۡنَا فِي مِلَّتِكُم بَعۡدَ إِذۡ نَجَّانَا اللّهُ مِنۡهَا
""We should have invented a lie against Allah if we returned to your religion, after Allah has rescued us from it.
Certainly if we revert to your religion and accept your ways, we will have uttered a tremendous lie against Allah by calling partners as rivals to Him,
وَمَا يَكُونُ لَنَا أَن نَّعُودَ فِيهَا إِلاَّ أَن يَشَاء اللّهُ رَبُّنَا
And it is not for us to return to it unless Allah, our Lord, should will.
This part of the Ayah refers all matters to Allah's will, and certainly, He has perfect knowledge of all matters and His observation encompasses all things,
وَسِعَ رَبُّنَا كُلَّ شَيۡءٍ عِلۡمًا
Our Lord comprehends all things in His knowledge.
عَلَى اللّهِ تَوَكَّلۡنَا
In Allah (Alone) we put our trust.
concerning all our affairs, what we practice of them and what we ignore,
رَبَّنَا افۡتَحۡ بَيۡنَنَا وَبَيۡنَ قَوۡمِنَا بِالۡحَقِّ
Our Lord! Judge between us and our people in truth,
judge between us and our people and give us victory over them,
وَأَنتَ خَيۡرُ الۡفَاتِحِينَ
for You are the best of those who give judgment.
and You are the Most Just Who never wrongs any in His judgment
وَقَالَ الۡمَلُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواۡ مِن قَوۡمِهِ
The chiefs of those who disbelieved among his people said (to their people):
Allah describes the enormity of disbelief, rebellion, transgression and misguidance (of Shu`ayb's people) and the defiance of truth encrypted in their hearts. They vowed, saying,
لَيِنِ اتَّبَعۡتُمۡ شُعَيۡباً إِنَّكُمۡ إِذاً لَّخَاسِرُونَ
""If you follow Shu`ayb, be sure then you will be the losers!""
Allah answered them,
فَأَخَذَتۡهُمُ الرَّجۡفَةُ فَأَصۡبَحُواۡ فِي دَارِهِمۡ جَاثِمِينَ
So the earthquake seized them and they lay (dead), prostrate in their homes.
Allah said that the earthquake shook them, as punishment for threatening to expel Shu`ayb and his followers.
Allah mentioned their end again in Surah Hud,
وَلَمَّا جَأءَ أَمۡرُنَا نَجَّيۡنَا شُعَيۡبًا وَالَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواۡ مَعَهُ بِرَحۡمَةٍ مِّنَّا وَأَخَذَتِ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواۡ الصَّيۡحَةُ فَأَصۡبَحُواۡ فِى دِيَـرِهِمۡ جَـثِمِينَ
And when Our commandment came, We saved Shu`ayb and those who believed with him by a mercy from Us. And the Sayhah (loud cry) seized the wrongdoers, and they lay (dead) prostrate in their homes. (11:94)
This Ayah mentions the Sayhah (cry) that struck them after they mocked Shu`ayb, saying,
. (Does your Salah (prayer) command you...11:87), so it was befitting to mention here the cry that made them silence.
In Surah Ash-Shu`ara, Allah said,
فَكَذَّبُوهُ فَأَخَذَهُمۡ عَذَابُ يَوۡمِ الظُّلَّةِ إِنَّهُ كَانَ عَذَابَ يَوۡمٍ عَظِيمٍ
But they belied him, so the torment of the Day of Shadow (a gloomy cloud) seized them. Indeed that was the torment of a Great Day. (26:189) because they challenged Shu`ayb,
فَأَسۡقِطۡ عَلَيۡنَا كِسَفًا مِّنَ السَّمَاء
(""So cause a piece of the heaven to fall on us, if you are of the truthful!)"" (26:187).
Therefore, Allah stated that each of these forms of punishment struck them on the Day of the Shadow.
فَأَخَذَهُمۡ عَذَابُ يَوۡمِ الظُّلَّةِ
So the torment of the Day of Shadow (a gloomy cloud) seized them (26:189), when a gloomy cloud came over them (containing) fire, flames and a tremendous light.
Next, a cry from the sky descended on them and a tremor shook them from beneath. Consequently, their souls were captured, their lives were taken and their bodies became idle,
فَأَصۡبَحُواۡ فِي دَارِهِمۡ جَاثِمِينَ
(and they lay (dead), prostrate in their homes).
Allah said next
الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُواۡ شُعَيۡبًا كَأَن لَّمۡ يَغۡنَوۡاۡ فِيهَا
Those who belied Shu`ayb, became as if they had never dwelt there (in their homes).
meaning, after the torment seized them, it looked as if they never dwelled in the land from which they wanted to expel their Messenger Shu`ayb and his followers.
Here, Allah refuted their earlier statement,
الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُواۡ شُعَيۡبًا كَانُواۡ هُمُ الۡخَاسِرِينَ
Those who belied Shu`ayb, they were the losers.
فَتَوَلَّى عَنۡهُمۡ وَقَالَ
Then he (Shu`ayb) turned from them and said:
Prophet Shu`ayb, peace be upon him, turned away from his people after the torment, punishment and destruction struck them, admonishing and censuring them by saying to them,
يَا قَوۡمِ لَقَدۡ أَبۡلَغۡتُكُمۡ رِسَالَاتِ رَبِّي وَنَصَحۡتُ لَكُمۡ
""O my people! I have indeed conveyed my Lord's Messages unto you and I have given you good advice.""
Shu`ayb said, I have conveyed to you what I was sent with, so I will not feel any sorrow for you since you disbelieved in what I brought you,
فَكَيۡفَ اسَى عَلَى قَوۡمٍ كَافِرِينَ
""Then how can I grieve over people who are disbelievers!"""
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