Word by Word
comes to you
comes to you
O ye Children of Adam! whenever there come to you messengers from amongst you, rehearsing My signs unto you,- those who are righteous and mend (their lives),- on them shall be no fear nor shall they grieve.
O Children of Adam! If (immaa: the noon of the conditional particle in has been assimilated with the extra maa) there should come to you messengers from among you, narrating to you My signs, then whoever fears, associating others with God, and makes amends, in his actions - no fear shall befall them, neither shall they grieve, in the Hereafter.
Allah commands taking Adornment when going to the Masjid
This honorable Ayah refutes the idolators' practice of performing Tawaf around the Sacred House while naked.
Muslim, An-Nasa'i and Ibn Jarir, (the following wording is that of Ibn Jarir) recorded that Shu`bah said that Salamah bin Kuhayl said that Muslim Al-Batin said that Sa`id bin Jubayr said that Ibn Abbas said,
The idolators used to go around the House while naked, both men and women, men in the day and women by night. The woman would say, Today, a part or all of it will be unveiled, but whatever is exposed of it, I do not allow.
Allah said in reply,
يَا بَنِي ادَمَ
O Children of Adam!
خُذُواۡ زِينَتَكُمۡ عِندَ كُلِّ مَسۡجِدٍ
Take your adornment to every Masjid,
Al-Awfi said that Ibn Abbas commented:
There were people who used to perform Tawaf around the House while naked, and Allah ordered them to take adornment, meaning, wear clean, proper clothes that cover the private parts. people were commanded to wear their best clothes when performing every prayer.
Mujahid, Ata', Ibrahim An-Nakha`i, Sa`id bin Jubayr, Qatadah, As-Suddi, Ad-Dahhak and Malik narrated a similar saying from Az-Zuhri, and from several of the Salaf. They said that;
this Ayah was revealed about the idolators who used to perform Tawaf around the House while naked.
This Ayah, as well as the Sunnah, encourage wearing the best clothes when praying, especially for Friday and `Id prayers.
It is also recommended (for men) to wear perfume for prayer, because it is adornment, and to use Siwak for it is part of what completes adornment.
The best color for clothes is white, for Imam Ahmad narrated that Ibn Abbas said that the Messenger of Allah said,
الۡبَسُوا مِنۡ ثِيَابِكُمُ الۡبَيَاضَ فَإِنَّهَا مِنۡ خَيۡرِ ثِيَابِكُمۡ وَكَفِّنُوا فِيهَا مَوۡتَاكُمۡ وَإِنَّ خَيۡرَ أَكۡحَالِكُمُ الاۡثۡمَدُ فَإِنَّهُ يَجۡلُو الۡبَصَرَ وَيُنۡبِتُ الشَّعَر
Wear white clothes, for it is among your best clothes, and also wrap your dead with it. And Ithmid (antimony) is among the best of your Kuhl, for it clears the sight and helps the hair grow.
This Hadith has a sound chain of narration, consisting of narrators who conform to the conditions and guidelines of Imam Muslim.
Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah also recorded it, and At-Tirmidhi said, Hasan Sahih.
وكُلُواۡ وَاشۡرَبُواۡ وَلَا تُسۡرِفُواۡ
And eat and drink but waste not by extravagance,
Al-Bukhari said that Ibn Abbas said,
Eat what you wish and wear what you wish, as long as you avoid two things:extravagance and arrogance.
Ibn Jarir said that Muhammad bin Abdul-A`la narrated to us that Muhammad bin Thawr narrated to us from Ma`mar from Ibn Tawus from his father who said that Ibn Abbas said,
Allah has allowed eating and drinking, as long as it does not contain extravagance or arrogance.
This chain is Sahih.
Imam Ahmad recorded that Al-Miqdam bin Ma`dikarib Al-Kindi said that he heard the Messenger of Allah saying,
مَا مَلَاَ ابۡنُ ادَمَ وِعَاءً شَرًّا مِنۡ بَطۡنِهِ بِحَسۡبِ ابۡنِ ادَمَ أَكَلَاتٍ يُقِمۡنَ صُلۡبَهُ فَإِنۡ كَانَ فَاعِلًا لَاا مَحَالَةَ فَثُلُثٌ طَعَامٌ وَثُلُثٌ شَرَابٌ وَثُلُثٌ لِنَفَسِه
The Son of Adam will not fill a pot worse for himself than his stomach. It is enough for the Son of Adam to eat a few bites that strengthens his spine. If he likes to have more, then let him fill a third with food, a third with drink and leave a third for his breathing.
An-Nasa'i and At-Tirmidhi collected this Hadith, At-Tirmidhi said, Hasan or Hasan Sahih according to another manuscript.
Ata Al-Khurasani said that Ibn Abbas commented on the Ayah,
وكُلُواۡ وَاشۡرَبُواۡ وَلَا تُسۡرِفُواۡ إِنَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ الۡمُسۡرِفِينَ
And eat and drink but waste not by extravagance, certainly He (Allah) likes not the wasteful.
With food and drink.
إِنَّهُ لَا يُحِبُّ الۡمُسۡرِفِينَ
Certainly He (Allah) likes not the wasteful.
Ibn Jarir commented on Allah's statement,
Allah the Exalted says that He does not like those who trespass the limits on an allowed matter or a prohibited matter, those who go to the extreme over what He has allowed, allow what He has prohibited, or prohibit what He has allowed. But, He likes that what He has allowed be considered as such (without extravagance) and what He has prohibited be considered as such. This is the justice that He has commanded.
Allah refutes those who prohibit any type of food, drink or clothes according to their own understanding, without relying on what Allah has legislated,
O Muhammad, to the idolators who prohibit some things out of false opinion and fabrication,
مَنۡ حَرَّمَ زِينَةَ اللّهِ الَّتِيَ أَخۡرَجَ لِعِبَادِهِ وَالۡطَّيِّبَاتِ مِنَ الرِّزۡقِ
Who has forbidden the adornment with clothes given by Allah, which He has produced for His servants and At-Tayyibat (good things) of sustenance!
قُلۡ هِي لِلَّذِينَ امَنُواۡ فِي الۡحَيَاةِ الدُّنۡيَا خَالِصَةً يَوۡمَ الۡقِيَامَةِ
Say:They are, in the life of this world, for those who believe, (and) exclusively for them (believers) on the Day of Resurrection.
meaning, these things were created for those who believe in Allah and worship Him in this life, even though the disbelievers share in these bounties in this life. In the Hereafter, the believers will have all this to themselves and none of the disbelievers will have a share in it, for Paradise is prohibited for the disbelievers.
كَذَلِكَ نُفَصِّلُ الايَاتِ لِقَوۡمٍ يَعۡلَمُونَ
Thus We explain the Ayat in detail for people who have knowledge.
Fahishah, Sin, Transgression, Shirk and Lying about Allah are prohibited
Allah says to His prophet (peace be upon him);
قُلۡ إِنَّمَا حَرَّمَ رَبِّيَ الۡفَوَاحِشَ مَا ظَهَرَ مِنۡهَا وَمَا بَطَنَ
Say:(But) the things that my Lord has indeed forbidden are the Fawahish (immoral deeds) whether committed openly or secretly,
Imam Ahmad recorded that Abdullah said that the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) said,
لَاا أَحَدَ أَغۡيَرُ مِنَ اللهِ فَلِذَلِكَ حَرَّمَ الۡفَوَاحِشَ مَا ظَهَرَ مِنۡهَا وَمَا بَطَنَ وَلَاا أَحَدَ أَحَبُّ إِلَيۡهِ الۡمَدۡحُ مِنَ الله
None is more jealous than Allah, and this is why He prohibited Fawahish, committed openly or in secret. And none likes praise more than Allah.
This was also recorded in the Two Sahihs.
In the explanation of Surah Al-An`am, we explained the Fahishah that is committed openly and in secret.
Allah said next,
وَالاِثۡمَ وَالۡبَغۡيَ بِغَيۡرِ الۡحَقِّ
and Ithm, and transgression without right,
Al-Ithm means, `disobedience'. As for unrighteous oppression, it occurs when you transgress against people without justification.
Ithm includes all types of disobedience. Allah said that the oppressor commits oppression against himself.
Therefore, the meaning of, Ithm is the sin that one commits against himself, while `oppression' pertains to transgression against other people, and Allah prohibited both.
وَأَن تُشۡرِكُواۡ بِاللّهِ مَا لَمۡ يُنَزِّلۡ بِهِ سُلۡطَانًا
and joining partners with Allah for which He has given no authority,
prohibits calling partners with Allah in worship.
وَأَن تَقُولُواۡ عَلَى اللّهِ مَا لَا تَعۡلَمُونَ
and saying things about Allah of which you have no knowledge.
such as lies and inventions, like claiming that Allah has a son, and other evil creeds that you -- O idolators -- have no knowledge of.
This is similar to His saying:
فَاجۡتَنِبُواۡ الرِّجۡسَ مِنَ الاٌّوۡثَـنِ
So shun the abomination (worshipping) of the idols. (22:30)
And every Ummah has,
meaning, each generation and nation,
أَجَلٌ فَإِذَا جَاء أَجَلُهُمۡ
its appointed term; when their term comes,
which they were destined for,
لَا يَسۡتَأۡخِرُونَ سَاعَةً وَلَا يَسۡتَقۡدِمُونَ
neither can they delay it nor can they advance it an hour (or a moment)
يَا بَنِي ادَمَ إِمَّا يَأۡتِيَنَّكُمۡ رُسُلٌ مِّنكُمۡ يَقُصُّونَ عَلَيۡكُمۡ ايَاتِي
O Children of Adam! If there come to you Messengers from among you, reciting to you My Ayat,
Allah then warned the Children of Adam that He sent to them Messengers who conveyed to them His Ayat.
Allah also conveyed good news, as well as warning,
فَمَنِ اتَّقَى وَأَصۡلَحَ
then whosoever has Taqwa and becomes righteous,
by abandoning the prohibitions and performing acts of obedience,
فَلَ خَوۡفٌ عَلَيۡهِمۡ وَلَا هُمۡ يَحۡزَنُونَ
وَالَّذِينَ كَذَّبُواۡ بِأيَاتِنَا وَاسۡتَكۡبَرُواۡ عَنۡهَا
on them shall be no fear nor shall they grieve. But those who reject Our Ayat and treat them with arrogance,
meaning, their hearts denied the Ayat and they were too arrogant to abide by them,
أُوۡلَـَيِكَ أَصۡحَابُ النَّارِ هُمۡ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ
they are the dwellers of the Fire, they will abide therein forever.
without end to their dwelling in it.
Idolators enjoy Their destined Share in This Life, but will lose Their Supporters upon Death
فَمَنۡ أَظۡلَمُ مِمَّنِ افۡتَرَى عَلَى اللّهِ كَذِبًا أَوۡ كَذَّبَ بِأيَاتِهِ
Who is more unjust than one who invents a lie against Allah or rejects His Ayat,
meaning, none is more unjust than whoever invents a lie about Allah or rejects the Ayat that He has revealed.
أُوۡلَـيِكَ يَنَالُهُمۡ نَصِيبُهُم مِّنَ الۡكِتَابِ
For such their appointed portion will reach them from the Book,
Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi said that,
it refers to each person's deeds, allotted provisions and age.
Similar was said by Ar-Rabi bin Anas and Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam.
Allah said in similar statements,
قُلۡ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَفۡتَرُونَ عَلَى اللَّهِ الۡكَذِبَ لَا يُفۡلِحُونَ
مَتَـعٌ فِى الدُّنۡيَا ثُمَّ إِلَيۡنَا مَرۡجِعُهُمۡ ثُمَّ نُذِيقُهُمُ الۡعَذَابَ الشَّدِيدَ بِمَا كَانُواۡ يَكۡفُرُونَ
Verily, those who invent a lie against Allah, will never be successful. (A brief) enjoyment in this world! And then unto Us will be their return, then We shall make them taste the severest torment because they used to disbelieve. (10:69-70)
وَمَن كَفَرَ فَلَ يَحۡزُنكَ كُفۡرُهُ إِلَيۡنَا مَرۡجِعُهُمۡ فَنُنَبِّيُهُم بِمَا عَمِلُواۡ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ بِذَاتِ الصُّدُورِ
And whoever disbelieves, let not his disbelief grieve you. To Us is their return, and We shall inform them what they have done. Verily, Allah is the All-Knower of what is in the breasts (of men). We let them enjoy for a little while. (31:23-24)
Allah said next,
حَتَّى إِذَا جَاءتۡهُمۡ رُسُلُنَا يَتَوَفَّوۡنَهُمۡ
until when Our messengers come to them to take their souls.
Allah states that when death comes to the idolators and the angels come to capture their souls to take them to Hellfire, the angels horrify them, saying,
قَالُواۡ أَيۡنَ مَا كُنتُمۡ تَدۡعُونَ مِن دُونِ اللّهِ
they (the angels) will say:Where are those whom you used to invoke and worship besides Allah,
Where are the so-called partners (of Allah) whom you used to call in the life of this world, invoking and worshipping them instead of Allah Call them so that they save you from what you are suffering.
However, the idolators will reply,
قَالُواۡ ضَلُّواۡ عَنَّا
they will reply, They have vanished and deserted us.
meaning, we have lost them and thus, we do not hope in their benefit or aid,
وَشَهِدُواۡ عَلَى أَنفُسِهِمۡ
And they will bear witness against themselves,
they will admit and proclaim against themselves,
أَنَّهُمۡ كَانُواۡ كَافِرِينَ
that they were disbelievers.
People of the Fire will dispute and curse Each Other
Allah mentioned what He will say to those who associate others with Him, invent lies about Him, and reject His Ayat,
قَالَ ادۡخُلُواۡ فِي أُمَمٍ
(Allah) will say:Enter you in the company of nations,
who are your likes and similar to you in conduct,
قَدۡ خَلَتۡ مِن قَبۡلِكُم
Who passed away before you,
from the earlier disbelieving nations,
مِّن الۡجِنِّ وَالاِنسِ فِي النَّارِ
Of men and Jinn, into the Fire.
Allah said next,
كُلَّمَا دَخَلَتۡ أُمَّةٌ لَّعَنَتۡ أُخۡتَهَا
Every time a new nation enters, it curses its sister nation (that went before),
Al-Khalil (Prophet Ibrahim), peace be upon him, said,
ثُمَّ يَوۡمَ الۡقِيَـمَةِ يَكۡفُرُ بَعۡضُكُمۡ بِبَعۡضٍ
But on the Day of Resurrection, you shall deny each other. (29:25)
Also, Allah said,
إِذۡ تَبَرَّأَ الَّذِينَ اتُّبِعُواۡ مِنَ الَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُواۡ وَرَأَوُاۡ الۡعَذَابَ وَتَقَطَّعَتۡ بِهِمُ الاٌّسۡبَابُ
وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُواۡ لَوۡ أَنَّ لَنَا كَرَّةً فَنَتَبَرَّأَ مِنۡهُمۡ كَمَا تَبَرَّءُواۡ مِنَّا كَذَلِكَ يُرِيهِمُ اللَّهُ أَعۡمَـلَهُمۡ حَسَرَتٍ عَلَيۡهِمۡ وَمَا هُم بِخَـرِجِينَ مِنَ النَّارِ
When those who were followed declare themselves innocent of those who followed (them), and they see the torment, then all their relations will be cut off from them. And those who followed will say:If only we had one more chance to return (to the worldly life), we would declare ourselves as innocent from them as they have declared themselves as innocent from us.
Thus Allah will show them their deeds as regrets for them. And they will never get out of the Fire. (2:166-167)
حَتَّى إِذَا ادَّارَكُواۡ فِيهَا جَمِيعًا
until they are all together in the Fire,
means, they are all gathered in the Fire,
قَالَتۡ أُخۡرَاهُمۡ لاُولَاهُمۡ
The last of them will say to the first of them,
that is, the nation of followers that enter last will say this to the first nations to enter.
This is because the earlier nations were worse criminals than those who followed them, and this is why they entered the Fire first. For this reason, their followers will complain against them to Allah, because they were the ones who misguided them from the correct path, saying,
رَبَّنَا هَـوُلاء أَضَلُّونَا فَأتِهِمۡ عَذَابًا ضِعۡفًا مِّنَ النَّارِ
Our Lord! These misled us, so give them a double torment of the Fire.
multiply their share of the torment.
Allah said in another instance,
يَوۡمَ تُقَلَّبُ وُجُوهُهُمۡ فِى النَّارِ يَقُولُونَ يلَيۡتَنَأ أَطَعۡنَا اللَّهَ وَأَطَعۡنَا الرَّسُولَا
وَقَالُواۡ رَبَّنَأ إِنَّأ أَطَعۡنَا سَادَتَنَا وَكُبَرَاءَنَا فَأَضَلُّونَا السَّبِيلۡ
رَبَّنَأ ءَاتِهِمۡ ضِعۡفَيۡنِ مِنَ الۡعَذَابِ
On the Day when their faces will be turned over in the Fire, they will say:Oh! Would that we had obeyed Allah and obeyed the Messenger. And they will say:Our Lord! Verily, we obeyed our chiefs and our great ones, and they misled us from the (right) way. Our Lord! Give them a double torment. (33:66-68)
Allah said in reply,
قَالَ لِكُلٍّ ضِعۡفٌ وَلَـكِن لاَّ تَعۡلَمُونَ
He will say:For each one there is double (torment) but you know not.
We did what you asked, and recompensed each according to their deeds.'
Allah said in another Ayah,
الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواۡ وَصَدُّواۡ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ زِدۡنَـهُمۡ عَذَابًا
Those who disbelieved and hinder (men) from the path of Allah, for them We will add torment. (16:88)
Furthermore, Allah said,
وَلَيَحۡمِلُنَّ أَثۡقَالَهُمۡ وَأَثۡقَالاً مَّعَ أَثۡقَالِهِمۡ
And verily, they shall bear their own loads, and other loads besides their own. (29:13)
وَمِنۡ أَوۡزَارِ الَّذِينَ يُضِلُّونَهُمۡ بِغَيۡرِ عِلۡمٍ
And also (some thing) of the burdens of those whom they misled without knowledge. (16:25)
وَقَالَتۡ أُولَاهُمۡ لاُخۡرَاهُمۡ
The first of them will say to the last of them,
meaning, the followed will say to the followers,
فَمَا كَانَ لَكُمۡ عَلَيۡنَا مِن فَضۡلٍ
You were not better than us. ..
meaning, you were led astray as we were led astray, according to As-Suddi.
فَذُوقُواۡ الۡعَذَابَ بِمَا كُنتُمۡ تَكۡسِبُونَ
So taste the torment for what you used to earn.
Allah again described the condition of the idolators during the gathering (of Resurrection), when He said;
قَالَ الَّذِينَ اسۡتَكۡبَرُواۡ لِلَّذِينَ اسۡتُضۡعِفُواۡ أَنَحۡنُ صَدَدنَـكُمۡ عَنِ الۡهُدَى بَعۡدَ إِذۡ جَأءَكُمۡ بَلۡ كُنتُمۡ مُّجۡرِمِينَ
وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ اسۡتُضۡعِفُواۡ لِلَّذِينَ اسۡتَكۡبَرُواۡ بَلۡ مَكۡرُ الَّيۡلِ وَالنَّهَارِ إِذۡ تَأۡمُرُونَنَأ أَن نَّكۡفُرَ بِاللَّهِ وَنَجۡعَلَ لَهُ أَندَاداً وَأَسَرُّواۡ النَّدَامَةَ لَمَّا رَأَوُاۡ اۡلَعَذَابَ وَجَعَلۡنَا الاٌّغۡلَـلَ فِى أَعۡنَاقِ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواۡ هَلۡ يُجۡزَوۡنَ إِلاَّ مَا كَانُواۡ يَعۡمَلُونَ
And those who were arrogant will say to those who were deemed weak:Did we keep you back from guidance after it come to you! Nay, but you were criminals.
Those who were deemed weak will say to those who were arrogant:Nay, but it was your plotting by night and day, when you ordered us to disbelieve in Allah and set up rivals to Him!
And each of them (parties) will conceal their own regrets, when they behold the torment. And We shall put iron collars round the necks of those who disbelieved. Are they requited aught except what they used to do! (34:32-33)
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