Word by Word
the One Who
the One Who
"For my Protector is Allah, Who revealed the Book (from time to time), and He will choose and befriend the righteous.
Truly my Protector, the One in charge of my affairs, is God Who reveals the Book, Al-Qur'an, and He takes charge of the righteous, by protecting them.
"All Mankind are the Offspring of Adam
هُوَ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُم مِّن نَّفۡسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ
It is He Who has created you from a single person,
Allah states that He has created all mankind from Adam, peace be upon him, and from Adam, He created his wife, Hawwa and from them, people started to spread.
Allah said in other Ayat,
يأَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّا خَلَقۡنَـكُم مِّن ذَكَرٍ وَأُنۡثَى وَجَعَلۡنَـكُمۡ شُعُوباً وَقَبَأيِلَ لِتَعَـرَفُواۡ إِنَّ أَكۡرَمَكُمۡ عَندَ اللَّهِ أَتۡقَـكُمۡ
O mankind! We have created you from a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know one another. Verily, the most honorable of you with Allah is that (believer) who has Taqwa. (49:13)
يَـأَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُواۡ رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِى خَلَقَكُمۡ مِّن نَّفۡسٍ وَحِدَةٍ وَخَلَقَ مِنۡهَا زَوۡجَهَا
O mankind! Have Taqwa of your Lord, Who created you from a single person, and from him He created his wife. (4:1)
In this honorable Ayah, Allah said;
وَجَعَلَ مِنۡهَا زَوۡجَهَا لِيَسۡكُنَ إِلَيۡهَا
And (then) He has created from him his wife, in order that he might enjoy the pleasure of living with her.
so that he is intimate and compassionate with her. Allah said in another Ayah,
وَمِنۡ ءايَـتِهِ أَنۡ خَلَقَ لَكُم مِّنۡ أَنفُسِكُمۡ أَزۡوَجاً لِّتَسۡكُنُواۡ إِلَيۡهَا وَجَعَلَ بَيۡنَكُم مَّوَدَّةً وَرَحۡمَةً
And among His Signs is this, that He created for you wives (spouses) from among yourselves, that you may find repose in them, and He has put between you affection and mercy. (30:21)
Indeed, there is no intimacy between two souls like that between the spouses. This is why Allah mentioned that the sorcerer might be able with his trick to separate between a man and his wife (thus indicating the difficulty of separating them in normal circumstances).
Allah said next,
When he covered her,
meaning had sexual intercourses with her.
حَمَلَتۡ حَمۡلً خَفِيفًا
she became pregnant and she carried it about lightly,
in reference to the first stage of pregnancy when the woman does not feel pain, for at that time, the fetus will be just a Nutfah (the mixture of the male and female discharge), then becomes an Alaqah (a piece of thick coagulated blood) and then a Mudghah (a small lump of flesh).
Allah said next,
and she carried it about,
According to Mujahid,
she continued the pregnancy,
Al-Hasan, Ibrahim An-Nakha`i and As-Suddi said similarly.
Maymun bin Mahran reported that his father said,
""She found the pregnancy unnoticeable.""
""I asked Al-Hasan about the Ayah,
(and she carried it about) and he said,
`Had you been an Arab, you would know what it means! It means that she continued the pregnancy (through its various stages).""'
(and she carried it about (lightly).), means, it became clear that she was pregnant.
Ibn Jarir commented, ""This Ayah means that the liquid remained, whether she stood up or sat down.""
Al-`Awfi recorded that Ibn Abbas said,
""The semen remained in, but she was unsure if she became pregnant or not,
Then when it became heavy,
she became heavier with the fetus"",
""The fetus grew in her womb.""
دَّعَوَا اللّهَ رَبَّهُمَا لَيِنۡ اتَيۡتَنَا صَالِحاً
they both invoked Allah, their Lord (saying):""If You give us a Salih child,
if he is born human in every respect.
Ad-Dahhak said that Ibn Abbas commented,
""They feared that their child might be born in the shape of an animal!""
while Abu Al-Bakhtri and Abu Malik commented,
""They feared that their newborn might not be human.""
Al-Hasan Al-Basri also commented,
""If You (Allah) give us a boy.""
لَّنَكُونَنَّ مِنَ الشَّاكِرِينَ
فَلَمَّا اتَاهُمَا صَالِحاً جَعَلَ لَهُ شُرَكَاء فِيمَا اتَاهُمَا
فَتَعَالَى اللّهُ عَمَّا يُشۡرِكُونَ
we shall indeed be among the grateful. But when He gave them a Salih child, they ascribed partners to Him (Allah) in that which He has given to them. High be Allah, Exalted above all that they ascribe as partners to Him.
Ibn Jarir recorded that Al-Hasan commented on this part of the Ayah,
جَعَلَ لَهُ شُرَكَاء فِيمَا اتَاهُمَا
(they ascribed partners to Him (Allah) in that which He has given to them),
""This occurred by followers of some religion, not from Adam (or Hawwa).""
Al-Hasan also said,
""This Ayah refers to those among the offspring of Adam who fell into Shirk,
جَعَلَ لَهُ شُرَكَاء فِيمَا اتَاهُمَا
(they ascribed partners to Him (Allah) in that which He has given to them),""
""Al-Hasan used to say that it refers to the Jews and Christians. Allah gave them children, and they turned them into Jews and Christians.""
The explanations from Al-Hasan have authentic chains of narration leading to him, and certainly, it is one of the best interpretations.
This Ayah should therefore be understood this way, for it is apparent that it does not refer to Adam and Hawwa, but about the idolators among their offspring. Allah mentioned the person first (Adam and Hawwa) and then continued to mention the species (mankind, many of whom committed Shirk).
There are similar cases in the Qur'an. For such cases, Allah said
وَلَقَدۡ زَيَّنَّا السَّمَأءَ الدُّنۡيَا بِمَصَـبِيحَ
And indeed We have adorned the nearest heaven with lamps. (67:5)
It is well-known that the stars that were made as lamps in the sky are not the same as the shooting missiles that are thrown at the devils (mentioned later in the Ayah).
There are similar instances in the Qur'an. Allah knows best
Idols do not create, help, or have Power over Anything
Allah admonishes the idolators who worshipped idols, rivals and images besides Him, although these objects were created by Allah, and neither own anything nor can they bring harm or benefit. These objects do not see or give aid to those who worship them. They are inanimate objects that neither move, hear, or see. Those who worship these objects are better than they are, for they hear see and have strength of their own.
أَيُشۡرِكُونَ مَا لَا يَخۡلُقُ شَيۡياً وَهُمۡ يُخۡلَقُونَ
Do they attribute as partners to Allah those who created nothing but they themselves are created!
meaning, `Do you associate with Allah others that neither create, nor have power to create anything!'
Allah said in other Ayat,
يأَيُّهَا النَّاسُ ضُرِبَ مَثَلٌ فَاسۡتَمِعُواۡ لَهُ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَدۡعُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ لَن يَخۡلُقُواۡ ذُبَاباً وَلَوِ اجۡتَمَعُواۡ لَهُ وَإِن يَسۡلُبۡهُمُ الذُّبَابُ شَيۡياً لاأَّ يَسۡتَنقِذُوهُ مِنۡهُ ضَعُفَ الطَّالِبُ وَالۡمَطۡلُوبُ
مَا قَدَرُواۡ اللَّهَ حَقَّ قَدۡرِهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَقَوِىٌّ عَزِيزٌ
O mankind! A similitude has been coined, so listen to it (carefully):Verily, those on whom you call besides Allah, cannot create (even) a fly, even though they combine together for the purpose. And if the fly snatches away a thing from them, they will have no power to release it from the fly. So weak are (both) the seeker and the sought. They have not estimated Allah His rightful estimate. Verily, Allah is All-Strong, Almighty. (22:73-74)
Allah states that if all false gods of the disbelievers gather their strength, they would not be able to create a fly. Rather, if the fly steals anything from them, no matter how insignificant, and flew away, they would not be able to retrieve it. Therefore, if an object is this weak, how can it be worshipped and invoked for provisions and aid. This is why Allah said,
لَا يَخۡلُقُ شَيۡياً وَهُمۡ يُخۡلَقُونَ
(... who created nothing but they themselves are created), these worshipped objects themselves were created and made. Prophet Ibrahim Al-Khalil proclaimed,
أَتَعۡبُدُونَ مَا تَنۡحِتُونَ
(""Worship you that which you (yourselves) carve."" (37:95).
Allah said next
وَلَا يَسۡتَطِيعُونَ لَهُمۡ نَصۡرًا
No help can they give them,
those who worship them,
وَلَا أَنفُسَهُمۡ يَنصُرُونَ
nor can they help themselves.
nor are they able to aid themselves against those who seek to harm them. For instance, Allah's Khalil, peace be upon him, broke and disgraced the idols of his people, just as Allah said he did,
فَرَاغَ عَلَيۡهِمۡ ضَرۡبًا بِالۡيَمِينِ
(Then he turned upon them, striking (them) with (his) right hand), (37:93) and,
فَجَعَلَهُمۡ جُذَاذًا إِلاَّ كَبِيرًا لَّهُمۡ لَعَلَّهُمۡ إِلَيۡهِ يَرۡجِعُونَ
(So he broke them to pieces, (all) except the biggest of them, that they might turn to it). (21:58)
Mu`adh bin Amr ibn Al-Jamuh and Mu`adh bin Jabal, may Allah be pleased with both of them, were still young when they embraced Islam after the Messenger of Allah came to Al-Madinah. So they were attacking the idols of the idolators at night, breaking, disfiguring them and using them as fuel for needy widows. They sought to give a lesson to their people to make them aware of their error.
Amr bin Al-Jamuh, who was one of the chiefs of his people, had an idol that he used to worship and perfume. The two Mu`adhs used to go to that idol, turn it on its head and tarnish it with animal waste. When Amr bin Al-Jamuh would see what happened to his idol, he would clean it, perfume it and leave a sword next to it, saying, ""Defend yourself."" However, the two young men would repeat their actions, and he would do the same as before.
Once, they took the idol, tied it to a dead dog and threw it in a well while tied to a rope! When Amr bin Al-Jamuh ﷺ this, he knew that his religion was false and said, ""By Allah! Had you been a god who has might, you would not end up tied to a dog on a rope!""
Amr bin Al-Jamuh embraced Islam, and he was strong in his Islam. He was later martyred during the battle of Uhud, may Allah be pleased with him, give him pleasure. and grant him Paradise as his dwelling.
وَإِن تَدۡعُوهُمۡ إِلَى الۡهُدَى لَا يَتَّبِعُوكُمۡ
And if you call them to guidance, they follow you not.
Allah says, these idols do not hear the calls of those who worship them. Therefore, the result is the same, whether calling the idols or shunning them.
سَوَاء عَلَيۡكُمۡ أَدَعَوۡتُمُوهُمۡ أَمۡ أَنتُمۡ صَامِتُونَ
It is the same for you whether you call them or you keep silent.
Ibrahim, peace be upon said,
يأَبَتِ لِمَ تَعۡبُدُ مَا لاأَ يَسۡمَعُ وَلاأَ يَبۡصِرُ وَلاأَ يُغۡنِى عَنكَ شَيۡياً
""O my father! Why do you worship that which hears not, sees not and cannot avail you in anything!"" (19:42)
Next, Allah states,
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَدۡعُونَ مِن دُونِ اللّهِ عِبَادٌ أَمۡثَالُكُمۡ فَادۡعُوهُمۡ فَلۡيَسۡتَجِيبُواۡ لَكُمۡ إِن كُنتُمۡ صَادِقِينَ
Verily, those whom you call upon besides Allah are servants like you. So call upon them and let them answer you if you are truthful.
أَلَهُمۡ أَرۡجُلٌ يَمۡشُونَ بِهَا أَمۡ لَهُمۡ أَيۡدٍ يَبۡطِشُونَ بِهَا أَمۡ لَهُمۡ أَعۡيُنٌ يُبۡصِرُونَ بِهَا أَمۡ لَهُمۡ اذَانٌ يَسۡمَعُونَ بِهَا
Have they feet wherewith they walk! Or have they hands wherewith they hold! Or have they eyes wherewith they see! Or have they ears wherewith they hear!
Allah states that the idols were created, just as those who worship them. Rather, the people are better than the idols, because they are able to hear, see and exert harm. The idols, on the other hand, have no such powers.
Allah said next,
قُلِ ادۡعُواۡ شُرَكَاءكُمۡ ثُمَّ كِيدُونِ فَلَ تُنظِرُونِ
Say:""Call your (so-called) partners (of Allah) and then plot against me, and give me no respite!
invoke the idols for aid against me and do not give me respite, even for an instant, and give it your best effort,
إِنَّ وَلِيِّـيَ اللّهُ الَّذِي نَزَّلَ الۡكِتَابَ وَهُوَ يَتَوَلَّى الصَّالِحِينَ
Verily, my protector is Allah Who has revealed the Book (the Qur'an), and He protects the righteous.
Allah's support is sufficient and He will suffice for me, He is My supporter, I trust in Him and take refuge with Him. He is my protector, in this life and the Hereafter, and the protector of every righteous believer after me.
Similarly, the people of Hud said,
إِن نَّقُولُ إِلاَّ اعۡتَرَاكَ بَعۡضُ ءَالِهَتِنَا بِسُوءٍ قَالَ إِنِّى أُشۡهِدُ اللَّهِ وَاشۡهَدُواۡ أَنِّى بَرِىءٌ مِّمَّا تُشۡرِكُونَ
مِن دُونِهِ فَكِيدُونِى جَمِيعًا ثُمَّ لَا تُنظِرُونِ
إِنِّى تَوَكَّلۡتُ عَلَى اللَّهِ رَبِّى وَرَبِّكُمۡ مَّا مِن دَابَّةٍ إِلاَّ هُوَ ءاخِذٌ بِنَاصِيَتِهَأ إِنَّ رَبِّى عَلَى صِرَطٍ مُّسۡتَقِيمٍ
""All that we say is that some of our gods have seized you with evil (madness).""
Hud replied:""I call Allah to witness, and bear you witness that I am free from that which you ascribe (as partners in worship, with Him (Allah)). So plot against me, all of you, and give me no respite. I put my trust in Allah, my Lord and your Lord! There is not a moving (living) creature but He has the grasp of its forelock. Verily, my Lord is on a path that is straight. (11:54-56)
Ibrahim Al-Khalil proclaimed (to his people),
قَالَ أَفَرَءَيۡتُمۡ مَّا كُنۡتُمۡ تَعۡبُدُونَ
أَنتُمۡ وَءَابَأوُكُمُ الاٌّقۡدَمُونَ
فَإِنَّهُمۡ عَدُوٌّ لِى إِلاَّ رَبَّ الۡعَـلَمِينَ
الَّذِى خَلَقَنِى فَهُوَ يَهۡدِينِ
Do you observe that which you have been worshipping, You and your ancient fathers. Verily, they are enemies to me, save the Lord of all that exists. Who has created me, and it is He Who guides me."" (26:75-78)
He also said to his father and his people,
وَإِذۡ قَالَ إِبۡرَهِيمُ لاًّبِيهِ وَقَوۡمِهِ إِنَّنِى بَرَاءٌ مِّمَّا تَعۡبُدُونَ
إِلاَّ الَّذِى فَطَرَنِى فَإِنَّهُ سَيَهۡدِينِ
وَجَعَلَهَا كَلِمَةً بَـقِيَةً فِى عَقِبِهِ لَعَلَّهُمۡ يَرۡجِعُونَ
""Verily, I am innocent of what you warship. Except Him Who did create me; and verily, He will guide me.""
And he made it a legacy lasting among his offspring, that they may turn back (to Allah). (43:26-28)
Allah said here,
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَدۡعُونَ مِن دُونِ اللّهِ
(Verily, those whom you call upon besides Allah) until the end of the Ayah, reiterating what has been said earlier, but He uses direct speech this time,
وَالَّذِينَ تَدۡعُونَ مِن دُونِهِ لَا يَسۡتَطِيعُونَ نَصۡرَكُمۡ وَلا أَنفُسَهُمۡ يَنۡصُرُونَ
And those whom you call upon besides Him (Allah) cannot help you nor can they help themselves.
وَإِن تَدۡعُوهُمۡ إِلَى الۡهُدَى لَا يَسۡمَعُواۡ إِن تَدۡعُوهُمۡ لَا يَسۡمَعُواۡ دُعَأءَكُمۡ وَتَرَاهُمۡ يَنظُرُونَ إِلَيۡكَ وَهُمۡ لَا يُبۡصِرُونَ
and you will see them looking at you, yet they see not.
meaning, they have eyes that stare as if they see, although they are solid. Therefore, the Ayah treated them as if they had a mind (saying, Tarahum, instead of Taraha), since they are made in the shape of humans with eyes drawn on them."
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