Word by Word
so that they may
so that they may
Thus do We explain the signs in detail; and perchance they may turn (unto Us).
Thus We detail the signs, We explain them even as We have explained the covenant, that they might reflect on them, and that they might revert, from their disbelief.
"Raising Mount Tur over the Jews, because of Their Rebellion
وَإِذ نَتَقْنَا الْجَبَلَ فَوْقَهُمْ كَأَنَّهُ ظُلَّةٌ وَظَنُّواْ أَنَّهُ وَاقِعٌ بِهِمْa
خُذُواۡ مَا اتَيۡنَاكُم بِقُوَّةٍ وَاذۡكُرُواۡ مَا فِيهِ لَعَلَّكُمۡ تَتَّقُونَ
And (remember) when We Nataqna the mountain over them as if it had been a canopy, and they thought that it was going to fall on them. (We said):""Hold firmly to what We have given you (the Tawrah), and remember that which is therein (act on its commandments), so that you may fear Allah and obey Him.""
Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas commented on the Ayah,
وَإِذ نَتَقۡنَا الۡجَبَلَ فَوۡقَهُمۡ
(And (remember) when We Nataqna the mountain over them),
""We raised the mountain, as Allah's other statement testifies,
وَرَفَعۡنَا فَوۡقَهُمُ الطُّورَ بِمِيثَاقِهِمۡ
(And for their covenant, We raised over them the mountain) (4:154).""
Also, Sufyan Ath-Thawri narrated that Al-A`mash said that, Sa`id bin Jubayr said that Ibn Abbas said,
""The angels raised the Mount over their heads, as reiterated by Allah's statement,
وَرَفَعۡنَا فَوۡقَهُمُ الطُّورَ
(We raised over them the mountain) (4:154).""
Al-Qasim bin Abi Ayyub narrated that Sa`id bin Jubayr said that Ibn Abbas said,
""Musa later on proceeded with them to the Sacred Land. He took along the Tablets, after his anger subsided, and commanded them to adhere to the orders that Allah ordained to be delivered to them. But these orders became heavy on them and they did not want to implement them until Allah raised the mountain over them,
(as if it had been a canopy), that is, when the angels raised the mountain over their heads.""
An-Nasa'i collected it
The Covenant taken from the Descendants of Adam
وَإِذۡ أَخَذَ رَبُّكَ مِن بَنِي ادَمَ مِن ظُهُورِهِمۡ ذُرِّيَّتَهُمۡ
And (remember) when your Lord brought forth from the Children of Adam, from their loins, their seed,
Allah stated that He brought the descendants of Adam out of their fathers' loins, and they testified against themselves that Allah is their Lord and King and that there is no deity worthy of worship except Him. Allah created them on this Fitrah, or way, just as He said,
فَأَقِمۡ وَجۡهَكَ لِلدِّينِ حَنِيفاً فِطۡرَةَ اللَّهِ الَّتِى فَطَرَ النَّاسَ عَلَيۡهَا لَا تَبۡدِيلَ لِخَلۡقِ اللَّهِ
So set you (O Muhammad) your face truly towards the religion, Hanifan. Allah's Fitrah with which He has created mankind. No change let there be in Khalqillah. (30:30)
And it is recorded in the Two Sahihs from Abu Hurayrah who said that the Messenger of Allah said,
كُلُّ مَوۡلُودٍ يُولَدُ عَلَى الۡفِطۡرَةِ فَأَبَوَاهُ يُهَوِّدَانِهِ وَيُنَصِّرَانِهِ وَيُمَجِّسَانِهِ كَمَا تُولَدُ بَهِيمَةً جَمۡعَاءَ هَلۡ تُحِسُّونَ فِيهَا مِنۡ جَدۡعَاء
Every child is born upon the Fitrah, it is only his parents who turn him into a Jew, a Christian or a Zoroastrian. Just as animals are born having full bodies, do you see any of them having a cutoff nose (when they are born).
Muslim recorded that Iyad bin Himar said that the Messenger of Allah said;
يَقُولُ اللهُ إِنِّي خَلَقۡتُ عِبَادِي حُنَفَاءَ فَجَاءَتۡهُمُ الشَّيَاطِينُ فَاجۡتَالَتۡهُمۡ عَنۡ دِينِهِمۡ وَحَرَّمَتۡ عَلَيۡهِمۡ مَا أَحۡلَلۡتُ لَهُم
Allah said, `I created My servants Hunafa (monotheists), but the devils came to them and deviated them from their religion, prohibiting what I allowed.
There are Hadiths that mention that Allah took Adam's offspring from his loins and divided them into those on the right and those on the left.
Imam Ahmad recorded that Anas bin Malik said that the Prophet said,
يُقَالُ لِلرَّجُلِ مِنۡ أَهۡلِ النَّارِ يَوۡمَ الۡقِيَامَةِ أَرَأَيۡتَ لَوۡ كَانَ لَكَ مَا عَلَى الاَۡرۡضِ مِنۡ شَيۡءٍ أَكُنۡتَ مُفۡتَدِيًا بِهِ
فَيَقُولُ قَدۡ أَرَدۡتُ مِنۡكَ أَهۡوَنَ مِنۡ ذَلِكَ قَدۡ أَخَذۡتُ عَلَيۡكَ فِي ظَهۡرِ ادَمَ أَنۡ لَا تُشۡرِكَ بِي شَيۡيًا فَأَبَيۡتَ إِلاَّ أَنۡ تُشۡرِكَ بِي
It will be said to a man from the people of the Fire on the Day of Resurrection, `If you owned all that is on the earth, would you pay it as ransom!'
He will reply, `Yes.'
Allah will say, `I ordered you with what is less than that, when you were still in Adam's loins, that is, associate none with Me (in worship). You insisted that you associate with Me (in worship).'
This was recorded in the Two Sahihs Commenting on this Ayah (7:172).
At-Tirmidhi recorded that Abu Hurayrah said that the Messenger of Allah said,
لَمَّا خَلَقَ اللهُ ادَمَ مَسَحَ ظَهۡرَهُ فَسَقَطَ مِنۡ ظَهۡرِهِ كُلُّ نَسَمَةٍ هُوَ خَالِقُهَا مِنۡ ذُرِّيَّتِهِ إِلَى يَوۡمِ الۡقِيَامَةِ وَجَعَلَ بَيۡنَ عَيۡنَي كَلِّ إِنۡسَانٍ مِنۡهُمۡ وَبِيصًا مِنۡ نُورٍ ثُمَّ عَرَضَهُمۡ عَلَى ادَمَ فَقَالَ أَيۡ رَبِّ مَنۡ هوُلَاءِ
When Allah created Adam, He wiped Adam's back and every person that He will create from him until the Day of Resurrection fell out from his back. Allah placed a glimmering light between the eyes of each one of them. Allah showed them to Adam and Adam asked, `O Lord! Who are they!'
قَالَ هوُلَااءِ ذُرِّيَّتُكَ
Allah said, `These are your offspring.'
فَرَأَىَ رَجُلً مِنۡهُمۡ فَأَعۡجَبَهُ وَبِيصُ مَا بَيۡنَ عَيۡنَيۡهِ قَالَ أَيۡ رَبِّ مَنۡ هَذَا
Adam saw a man from among them whose light he liked. He asked, `O Lord! Who is this man!'
قَالَ هَذَا رَجُلٌ مِنۡ اخِرِ الاۡاُمَمِ مِنۡ ذُرِّيَّتِكَ يُقَالُ لَهُ دَاوُدُ
Allah said, `This is a man from the latter generations of your offspring. His name is Dawud.'
قَالَ رَبِّ وَكَمۡ جَعَلۡتَ عُمۡرَهُ
Adam said, `O Lord! How many years would he live!'
قَالَ سِتِّينَ سَنَةً
Allah said, `Sixty years.'
قَالَ أَيۡ رَبِّ وَقَدۡ وَهَبۡتُ لَهُ مِنۡ عُمۡرِي أَرۡبَعِينَ سَنَةً
Adam said, `O Lord! I have forfeited forty years from my life for him.'
فَلَمَّا انۡقَضَى عُمۡرُ ادَمَ جَاءَهُ مَلَكُ الۡمَوۡتِ قَالَ أَوَ لَمۡ يَبۡقَ مِنۡ عُمۡرِي أَرۡبَعُونَ سَنَةً
When Adam's life came to an end, the angel of death came to him (to take his soul). Adam said, `I still have forty years from my life term, don't I!'
قَالَ أَوَ لَمۡ تُعۡطِهَا ابۡنَكَ دَاوُدَ
He said, `Have you not given it to your son Dawud!'
قَالَ فَجَحَدَ ادَمُ فَجَحَدَتۡ ذُرِّيَّتُهُ وَنَسِيَ ادَمُ فَنِسَيتۡ ذُرِّيَّتُهُ وَخَطِىءَ ادَمُ فَخَطِيَتۡ ذُرِّيَّتُه
So Adam denied that and his offspring followed suit (denying Allah's covenant), Adam forgot and his offspring forgot, Adam made a mistake and his offspring made mistakes.
At-Tirmidhi said, ""This Hadith is Hasan Sahih, and it was reported from various chains of narration through Abu Hurayrah from the Prophet.""
Al-Hakim also recorded it in his Mustadrak, and said; ""Sahih according to the criteria of Muslim, and they did not record it.""
These and similar Hadiths testify that Allah, the Exalted and Most Honored, brought forth Adam's offspring from his loins and separated between the inhabitants of Paradise and those of the Fire.
Allah then said,
وَأَشۡهَدَهُمۡ عَلَى أَنفُسِهِمۡ أَلَسۡتُ بِرَبِّكُمۡ قَالُواۡ بَلَى
and made them testify as to themselves (saying):""Am I not your Lord!"" They said:""Yes! We testify,""
Therefore, Allah made them testify with themselves by circumstance and words. Testimony is sometimes given in words, such as,
قَالُواۡ شَهِدۡنَا عَلَى أَنفُسِنَا
(They will say:""We bear witness against ourselves""). (6:130)
At other times, testimony is given by the people themselves, such as Allah's statement,
مَا كَانَ لِلۡمُشۡرِكِينَ أَن يَعۡمُرُواۡ مَسَاجِدَ الله شَاهِدِينَ عَلَى أَنفُسِهِمۡ بِالۡكُفۡرِ
(It is not for the Mushrikin, (polytheists) to maintain the mosques of Allah, while they testify against their own selves of disbelief). (9:17)
This Ayah means that their disbelief testifies against them, not that they actually testify against themselves here.
Another Ayah of this type is Allah's statement,
وَإِنَّهُ عَلَى ذَلِكَ لَشَهِيدٌ
(And to that he bears witness (by his deeds). (100:7)
The same is the case with asking, sometimes takes the form of words and sometimes a situation or circumstance. For instance, Allah said,
وَاتَاكُم مِّن كُلِّ مَا سَأَلۡتُمُوهُ
(And He gave you of all that you asked for). (14:34)
Allah said here,
أَن تَقُولُواۡ يَوۡمَ الۡقِيَامَةِ
lest you should say on the Day of Resurrection:
إِنَّا كُنَّا عَنۡ هَذَا
we were of this (of Tawhid),
أَوۡ تَقُولُواۡ إِنَّمَا أَشۡرَكَ ابَاوُنَا
unaware. Or lest you should say:""It was only our fathers aforetime who took others as partners in worship along with Allah,""
وَكُنَّا ذُرِّيَّةً مِّن بَعۡدِهِمۡ
أَفَتُهۡلِكُنَا بِمَا فَعَلَ الۡمُبۡطِلُونَ
and we were (merely their) descendants after them; will You then destroy us because of the deeds of men who practiced falsehood.""
وَكَذَلِكَ نُفَصِّلُ الايَاتِ وَلَعَلَّهُمۡ يَرۡجِعُونَ
Thus do We explain the Ayat in detail, so that they may turn (unto the truth)."
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