Word by Word
Give me respite
they are raised up
Give me respite
they are raised up
He said: "Give me respite till the day they are raised up."
Said he, 'Reprieve me, postpone my affair, until the day when they, people, are resurrected'.
Prostration of the Angels to Adam and Shaytan's Arrogance
Allah informs the Children of Adam about the honor of their father and the enmity of Shaytan, who still has envy for them and for their father Adam. So they should beware of him and not follow in his footsteps.
وَلَقَدۡ خَلَقۡنَاكُمۡ ثُمَّ صَوَّرۡنَاكُمۡ ثُمَّ قُلۡنَا لِلۡمَليِكَةِ اسۡجُدُواۡ لادَمَ فَسَجَدُواۡ
And surely, We created you and then gave you shape; then We told the angels, Prostrate yourselves to Adam, and they prostrated,
This is like His saying,
وَإِذۡ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلۡمَلَـيِكَةِ إِنِّى خَـلِقٌ بَشَرًا مِّن صَلۡصَـلٍ مِّنۡ حَمَإٍ مَّسۡنُونٍ
فَإِذَا سَوَّيۡتُهُ وَنَفَخۡتُ فِيهِ مِن رُّوحِى فَقَعُواۡ لَهُ سَـجِدِينَ
And (remember) when your Lord said to the angels:I am going to create a man from dried (sounding) clay of altered mud. So, when I have fashioned him completely and breathed into him the soul (which I created for him), then fall (you) down prostrating yourselves unto him. (15:28-29)
After Allah created Adam with His Hands from dried clay of altered mud and made him in the shape of a human being, He blew life into him and ordered the angels to prostrate before him, honoring Allah's glory and magnificence. The angels all heard, obeyed and prostrated, but Iblis did not prostrate.
إِلاَّ إِبۡلِيسَ لَمۡ يَكُن مِّنَ السَّاجِدِينَ
except Iblis (Shaytan), he refused to be of those who prostrated.
We explained this subject in the beginning of Surah Al-Baqarah. Therefore, the Ayah (7:11) refers to Adam, although Allah used the plural in this case, because Adam is the father of all mankind.
Similarly, Allah said to the Children of Israel who lived during the time of the Prophet,
وَظَلَّلۡنَا عَلَيۡكُمُ الۡغَمَامَ وَأَنزَلۡنَا عَلَيۡكُمُ الۡمَنَّ وَالسَّلۡوَى
And We shaded you with clouds and sent down on you manna and the quail, (2:57)
This refers to their forefathers who lived during the time of Moses. But, since that was a favor given to the forefathers, and they are their very source, then the offspring have also been favored by it. This is not the case in:
وَلَقَدۡ خَلَقۡنَا الاِنۡسَـنَ مِن سُلَـلَةٍ مِّن طِينٍ
And indeed We created man out of an extract of clay (water and earth). (23:12)
For this merely means that Adam was created from clay. His children were created from Nutfah (mixed male and female sexual discharge).
This last Ayah is thus talking about the origin of mankind, not that they were all created from clay, and Allah knows best
قَالَ مَا مَنَعَكَ أَلاَّ تَسۡجُدَ إِذۡ أَمَرۡتُكَ قَالَ أَنَاۡ خَيۡرٌ مِّنۡهُ خَلَقۡتَنِي مِن نَّارٍ وَخَلَقۡتَهُ مِن طِينٍ
(Allah) said:What prevented you (O Iblis) that you did not prostrate, when I commanded you
Iblis said:I am better than him (Adam), You created me from fire, and him You created from clay.
مَا مَنَعَكَ أَلاَّ تَسۡجُدَ
(Allah) said:What prevented you (O Iblis) that you did not prostrate!
According to Ibn Jarir, meaning,
what stopped and hindered you from prostrating after I ordered you to do so,
This meaning is sound, and Allah knows best.
Iblis, may Allah curse him, said,
أَنَاۡ خَيۡرٌ مِّنۡهُ
(I am better than him (Adam)),
and this excuse is worse than the crime itself! Shaytan said that he did not obey Allah because he who is better cannot prostrate to he who is less.
Shaytan, may Allah curse him, meant that he is better than Adam, So how can You order me to prostrate before him! Shaytan said that he is better than Adam because he was created from fire while, You created him from clay, and fire is better. The cursed one looked at the origin of creation not at the honor bestowed, that is, Allah creating Adam with His Hand and blowing life into him. Shaytan made a false comparison when confronted by Allah's command,
فَقَعُوا لَهُ سَاجِدِينَ
(Then you fall down prostrate to him) (38:72). Therefore, Shaytan alone contradicted the angels, because he refused to prostrate. He, thus, became `Ablasa' from the mercy, meaning, lost hope in acquiring Allah's mercy. He committed this error, may Allah curse him, due to his false comparison.
His claim that the fire is more honored than mud was also false, because mud has the qualities of wisdom, forbearance, patience and assurance, mud is where plants grow, flourish, increase, and provide good. To the contrary, fire has the qualities of burning, recklessness and hastiness. Therefore, the origin of creation directed Shaytan to failure, while the origin of Adam led him to return to Allah with repentance, humbleness, obedience and submission to His command, admitting his error and seeking Allah's forgiveness and pardon for it.
Muslim recorded that Aishah said that the Messenger of Allah said,
خُلِقَتِ الۡمَلَيِكَةُ مِنۡ نُورٍ وَخُلِقَ إِبۡلِيسُ مِنۡ مَارِجٍ مِنۡ نَارٍ وَخُلِقَ ادَمُ مِمَّا وُصِفَ لَكُم
The angels were created from light, Shaytan from a smokeless flame of fire, while Adam was created from what was described to you.
Iblis was the First to use Qiyas (Analogical Comparison)
Ibn Jarir recorded that Al-Hasan commented on Shaytan's statement,
خَلَقۡتَنِي مِن نَّارٍ وَخَلَقۡتَهُ مِن طِينٍ
(You created me from fire, and him You created from clay).
Iblis used Qiyas (analogy), and he was the first one to do so.
This statement has an authentic chain of narration.
Ibn Jarir recorded that Ibn Sirin said,
The first to use Qiyas was Iblis, and would the sun and moon be worshipped if it was not for Qiyas
This statement also has an authentic chain of narration
Allah ordered Iblis;
قَالَ فَاهۡبِطۡ مِنۡهَا
(Allah) said:Get down from this,
because you defied My command and disobeyed Me. Get out,
فَمَا يَكُونُ لَكَ أَن تَتَكَبَّرَ فِيهَا
it is not for you to be arrogant here.
in Paradise, according to the scholars of Tafsir.
It could also refer to particular status which he held in the utmost highs.
Allah said to Iblis,
فَاخۡرُجۡ إِنَّكَ مِنَ الصَّاغِرِينَ
Get out, for you are of those humiliated and disgraced.
as just recompense for his ill intentions, by giving him the opposite of what he intended (arrogance).
This is when the cursed one remembered and asked for respite until the Day of Judgment,
قَالَ فَأَنظِرۡنِي إِلَى يَوۡمِ يُبۡعَثُونَ
قَالَ إِنَّكَ مِنَ المُنظَرِينَ
(Iblis) said:Allow me respite till the Day they are raised up (the Day of Resurrection).
(Allah) said:You are of those respited.
It is like His statement;
قَالَ رَبِّ فَأَنظِرۡنِى إِلَى يَوۡمِ يُبۡعَثُونَ
قَالَ فَإِنَّكَ مِنَ الۡمُنظَرِينَ
Then allow me respite till the Day they are raised up. (Allah) said:Then you are of those respited. (15:36-37)
Allah gave Shaytan what he asked for out of His wisdom, being His decision and decree, that is never prevented or resisted. Surely, none can avert His decision, and He is swift in reckoning
Allah said that after He gave respite to Shaytan,
إِلَى يَوۡمِ يُبۡعَثُونَ
(till the Day they are raised up (resurrected)) and Iblis was sure that he got what he wanted, he went on in defiance and rebellion.
قَالَ فَبِمَا أَغۡوَيۡتَنِي لَاقۡعُدَنَّ لَهُمۡ صِرَاطَكَ الۡمُسۡتَقِيمَ
Because You have `Aghwaytani', surely, I will sit in wait against them (human beings) on Your straight path.
meaning, as You have sent me astray.
Ibn Abbas said that `Aghwaytani' means,
As You caused my ruin, I will sit in wait for Your servants whom You will create from the offspring of the one you expelled me for.
He went on,
(Your straight path), the path of truth and the way of safety. I (Iblis) will misguide them from this path so that they do not worship You Alone, because You sent me astray.
Mujahid said that the `straight path', refers to the truth.
Imam Ahmad recorded that Saburah bin Abi Al-Fakih said that he heard the Messenger of Allah saying,
إِنَّ الشَّيۡطَانَ قَعَدَ لاِبۡنِ ادَمَ بِطُرُقِهِ فَقَعَدَ لَهُ بِطَرِيقِ الاِۡسۡلَمِ فَقَالَ أَتُسۡلِمُ وَتَذَرُ دِينَكَ وَدِينَ ابَايِكَ قَالَ فَعَصَاهُ وَأَسۡلَم
Shaytan sat in wait for the Son of Adam in all his paths. He sat in the path of Islam, saying, `Would you embrace Islam and abandon your religion and the religion of your forefathers!' However, the Son of Adam disobeyed Shaytan and embraced Islam.
قَعَدَ لَهُ بِطَرِيقِ الۡهِجۡرَةِ فَقَالَ أَتُهَاجِرُ وَتَدَعُ أَرۡضَكَ وَسَمَاءَكَ
So Shaytan sat in the path of Hijrah (migration in the cause of Allah), saying, `Would you migrate and leave your land and sky!'
وَإِنَّمَا مَثَلُ الۡمُهَاجِرِ كَالۡفَرَسِ فِي الطِّوَلِ فَعَصَاهُ وَهَاجَرَ
But the parable of the Muhajir is that of a horse in his stamina So, he disobeyed Shaytan and migrated.
ثُمَّ قَعَدَ لَهُ بِطَرِيقِ الۡجِهَادِ وَهُوَ جِهَادُ النَّفۡسِ وَالۡمَالِ فَقَالَ تُقَاتِلُ فَتُقۡتَلُ فَتُنۡكَحُ الۡمَرۡأَةُ وَيُقۡسَمُ الۡمَالُ
So Shaytan sat in the path of Jihad, against one's self and with his wealth, saying, `If you fight, you will be killed, your wife will be married and your wealth divided.'
قاَلَ فَعَصَاهُ وَجَاهَد
So he disobeyed him and performed Jihad.
The Prophet peace be upon him then said;
فَمَنۡ فَعَلَ ذَلِكَ مِنۡهُمۡ فَمَاتَ كَانَ حَقًّا عَلَى اللهِ أَنۡ يُدۡخِلَهُ الۡجَنَّةَ
وَإِنۡ قُتِلَ كَانَ حَقًّا عَلَى اللهِ أَنۡ يُدۡخِلَهُ الۡجَنَّةَ
وَإِنۡ غَرِقَ كَانَ حَقًّا عَلَى اللهِ أَنۡ يُدۡخِلَهُ الۡجَنَّةَ
أَوۡ وَقَصَتۡهُ دَابَّةٌ كَانَ حَقًّا عَلَى اللهِ أَنۡ يُدۡخِلَهُ الۡجَنَّة
Therefore, whoever among them (Children of Adam) does this and dies, it will be a promise from Allah that He admits him into Paradise.
If he is killed, it will be a promise from Allah that He admits him into Paradise.
If he drowns, it will be a promise from Allah that He admits him into Paradise.
If the animal breaks his neck, it will be a promise from Allah that He admits him into Paradise.
ثُمَّ لاتِيَنَّهُم مِّن بَيۡنِ أَيۡدِيهِمۡ وَمِنۡ خَلۡفِهِمۡ وَعَنۡ أَيۡمَانِهِمۡ وَعَن شَمَأيِلِهِمۡ وَلَا تَجِدُ أَكۡثَرَهُمۡ شَاكِرِينَ
Then I will come to them from before them and behind them, from their right and from their left, and You will not find most of them to be thankful.
Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas commented on:
ثُمَّ لاتِيَنَّهُم مِّن بَيۡنِ أَيۡدِيهِمۡ
(Then I will come to them from before them),
Raising doubts in them concerning their Hereafter,
(and (from) behind them),
making them more eager for this life,
(from their right),
causing them confusion in the religion,
(and from their left),
luring them to commit sins.
This is meant to cover all paths of good and evil. Shaytan discourages the people from the path of good and lures them to the path of evil.
Al-Hakam bin Abban said that Ikrimah narrated from Ibn Abbas concerning the Ayah,
ثُمَّ لاتِيَنَّهُم مِّن بَيۡنِ أَيۡدِيهِمۡ وَمِنۡ خَلۡفِهِمۡ وَعَنۡ أَيۡمَانِهِمۡ وَعَن شَمَأيِلِهِمۡ
Then I will come to them from before them and behind them, from their right and from their left,
He did not say that he will come from above them, because the mercy descends from above.
Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas said,
وَلَا تَجِدُ أَكۡثَرَهُمۡ شَاكِرِينَ
and You will not find most of them to be thankful.
means, those who single Him out (in worship).
When Shaytan said this, it was a guess and an assumption on his part. Yet, the truth turned out to be the same, for Allah said,
وَلَقَدۡ صَدَّقَ عَلَيۡهِمۡ إِبۡلِيسُ ظَنَّهُ فَاتَّبَعُوهُ إِلاَّ فَرِيقاً مِّنَ الۡمُوۡمِنِينَ
وَمَا كَانَ لَهُ عَلَيۡهِمۡ مِّن سُلۡطَـنٍ إِلاَّ لِنَعۡلَمَ مَن يُوۡمِنُ بِالاٌّخِرَةِ مِمَّنۡ هُوَ مِنۡهَا فِى شَكٍّ وَرَبُّكَ عَلَى كُلِّ شَىۡءٍ حَفُيظٌ
And indeed Iblis (Shaytan) did prove true his thought about them, and they followed him, all except a group of true believers. And he had no authority over them, except that We might test him who believes in the Hereafter, from him who is in doubt about it. And your Lord is Watchful over everything. (34:20-21)
This is why there is a Hadith that encourages seeking refuge with Allah from the lures of Shaytan from all directions.
Imam Ahmad narrated that Abdullah bin Umar said,
The Messenger of Allah used to often recite this supplication in the morning and when the night falls,
اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسۡأَلُكَ الۡعَافِيَةَ فِي الدُّنۡيَا وَالاۡخِرَةِ
اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسۡأَلُكَ الۡعَفۡوَ وَالۡعَافِيَةَ فِي دِينِي وَدُنۡيَايَ وَأَهۡلِي وَمَالِي
اللَّهُمَّ اسۡتُرۡ عَوۡرَاتِي وَامِنۡ رَوۡعَاتِي
اللَّهُمَّ احۡفَظۡنِي مِنۡ بَيۡنِ يَدَيَّ وَمِنۡ خَلۡفِي وَعَنۡ يَمِينِي وَعَنۡ شِمَالِي وَمِنۡ فَوۡقِي وَأَعُوذُ بِعَظَمتِكَ أَنۡ أُغۡتَالَ مِنۡ تَحۡتِي
O Allah! I ask You for well-being in this life and the Hereafter.
O Allah! I ask You for pardon and well-being in my religion, life, family and wealth.
O Allah! Cover my errors and reassure me in times of difficulty.
O Allah! Protect me from before me, from behind me, from my right, from my left and from above me. I seek refuge with Your greatness from being killed from below me.
Waki` commented (about being killed from below),
This refers to earthquakes.
Abu Dawud, An-Nasa'i, Ibn Majah, Ibn Hibban and Al-Hakim collected this Hadith, and Al-Hakim said, Its chain is Sahih.
قَالَ اخۡرُجۡ مِنۡهَا مَذۡوُومًا مَّدۡحُورًا
(Allah) said (to Iblis):Get out from this (Paradise), Madh'uman Madhura. Whoever of them (mankind) will follow you, then surely, I will fill Hell with you all.
Allah emphasized His cursing, expelling, banishing and turning Shaytan away from the uppermost heights, saying;
Ibn Jarir said,
As for Madh'um, it is disgraced.
And he said,
Madhur is the distanced, that is, he is banished and expelled.
Abdur-Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam said,
We do not know of any who is Madh'uh and Madhmum except for one.
Sufyan Ath-Thawri narrated from Abu Ishaq from At-Tamimi from Ibn Abbas,
اخۡرُجۡ مِنۡهَا مَذۡوُومًا مَّدۡحُورًا
(Get out from this (Paradise), Madh'uman Madhura,
Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas commented on,
اخۡرُجۡ مِنۡهَا مَذۡوُومًا مَّدۡحُورًا
(Get out from this (Paradise), Madh'uman Madhura),
Belittled and despised.
Hateful and expelled.
Cursed and despised.
Expelled and banished.
Ar-Rabi` bin Anas said that;
`Madh'um' means banished, while, `Madhura' means belittled.
لَّمَن تَبِعَكَ مِنۡهُمۡ لَامۡلنَّ جَهَنَّمَ مِنكُمۡ أَجۡمَعِينَ
Whoever of them (mankind) will follow you, then surely, I will fill Hell with you all.
This is similar to Allah's saying;
قَالَ اذۡهَبۡ فَمَن تَبِعَكَ مِنۡهُمۡ فَإِنَّ جَهَنَّمَ جَزَاوُكُمۡ جَزَاءً مَّوفُورًا
وَاسۡتَفۡزِزۡ مَنِ اسۡتَطَعۡتَ مِنۡهُمۡ بِصَوۡتِكَ وَأَجۡلِبۡ عَلَيۡهِم بِخَيۡلِكَ وَرَجِلِكَ وَشَارِكۡهُمۡ فِى الاٌّمۡوَلِ وَالاٌّوۡلَـدِ وَعِدۡهُمۡ وَمَا يَعِدُهُمُ الشَّيۡطَـنُ إِلاَّ غُرُورًا
إِنَّ عِبَادِى لَيۡسَ لَكَ عَلَيۡهِمۡ سُلۡطَـنٌ وَكَفَى بِرَبِّكَ وَكِيلً
(Allah) said:Go, and whosoever of them follows you, surely, Hell will be the recompense of you (all) an ample recompense. And gradually delude those whom you can among them with your voice, make assaults on them with your cavalry and your infantry, share with them wealth and children, and make promises to them.
But Shaytan promises them nothing but deceit.
Verily, My servants -- you have no authority over them. And All-Sufficient is your Lord as a Guardian. (17:63-65)
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