Word by Word
will cover them
will cover them
Their eyes will be cast down,- ignominy will cover them; seeing that they had been summoned aforetime to bow in adoration, while they were whole, (and had refused).
With humbled (khaashi'atan is a circumstantial qualifier referring to the person [of the verb] yud'awna, 'they are summoned') that is to say, with abject, gazes, which they do not raise, they will be overcast, enveloped, by abasement; for they had indeed been summoned, in this world, to prostrate themselves while they were yet sound, but they never used to do it, by the fact that they never performed prayer.
The Terror of the Day of Judgement
After Allah mentions that those who have Taqwa, will have Gardens of Delight with their Lord, He explains when this will be, and its actual occurrence.
يَوۡمَ يُكۡشَفُ عَن سَاقٍ وَيُدۡعَوۡنَ إِلَى السُّجُودِ فَلَ يَسۡتَطِيعُونَ
The Day when the Shin shall be laid bare and they shall be called to prostrate themselves, but they shall not be able to do so.
meaning, the Day of Judgement and the horrors, earthquakes, trials, tests and great matters that will occur during it.
Al-Bukhari recorded that Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri said that he heard the Prophet saying,
يَكۡشِفُ رَبُّنَا عَنۡ سَاقِهِ فَيَسۡجُدُ لَهُ كُلُّ مُوۡمِنٍ وَمُوۡمِنَةٍ وَيَبۡقَى مَنۡ كَانَ يَسۡجُدُ فِي الدُّنۡيَا رِيَاءً وَسُمۡعَةً فَيَذۡهَبُ لِيَسۡجُدَ فَيَعُودُ ظَهۡرُهُ طَبَقًا وَاحِدًا
Our Lord will reveal His Shin, and every believing male and female will prostrate to Him. The only people who will remain standing are those who prostrated in the worldly life only to be seen and heard (showing off). This type of person will try to prostrate at that time, but his back will made to be one stiff plate (the bone will not bend or flex).
This Hadith was recorded in the Two Sahihs and other books from different routes of transmission with various wordings. It is a long Hadith that is very popular.
Concerning Allah's statement
خَاشِعَةً أَبۡصَارُهُمۡ تَرۡهَقُهُمۡ ذِلَّةٌ
Their eyes will be cast down and ignominy will cover them;
means, in the final abode, due to their crimes and arrogance in the worldly life. Thus they will be punished with the opposite of what they did.
وَقَدۡ كَانُوا يُدۡعَوۡنَ إِلَى السُّجُودِ وَهُمۡ سَالِمُونَ
they used to be called to prostrate themselves, while they were whole, (and had refused).
When they were called to prostrate in the worldly life, they refused to do so even though they were healthy and secure. Therefore, they will be punished with the lack of ability to do so in the Hereafter. When the Almighty Lord makes Himself visible (before the believers), then the believers will fall down in prostration to Him, but no one of the disbelievers and hypocrites will be able to prostrate. rather, their backs will become one plate. Every time one of them attempts to prostrate, he will bow his neck but will not be able to prostrate. This is just like in the life of this world, when these people were in opposition to what the believers were doing.
For Whoever denies the Qur'an
Then Allah says
فَذَرۡنِي وَمَن يُكَذِّبُ بِهَذَا الۡحَدِيثِ
Then leave Me alone with such as belie this narration.
meaning, the Qur'an.
This is a sever threat which means, `leave Me alone with this person; I know about him and how I will gradually punish him and increase him in his falsehood. I am giving him respite for a while, then I will seize him with a mighty and powerful punishment.'
Thus, Allah says,
سَنَسۡتَدۡرِجُهُم مِّنۡ حَيۡثُ لَا يَعۡلَمُونَ
We shall punish them gradually from directions they perceive not.
meaning, and they will not even be aware of it. Rather, they will believe that it is a noble blessing from Allah, but really the same matter is actually a form of humiliation (for them).
This is similar to Allah's statement,
أَيَحۡسَبُونَ أَنَّمَا نُمِدُّهُمۡ بِهِ مِن مَّالٍ وَبَنِينَ
نُسَارِعُ لَهُمۡ فِى الۡخَيۡرَتِ بَل لاَّ يَشۡعُرُونَ
Do they think that in wealth and children with which We expand them, We hasten unto them with good things. Nay, but they perceive not. (23:55,56)
Allah also said,
فَلَمَّا نَسُواۡ مَا ذُكِّرُواۡ بِهِ فَتَحۡنَا عَلَيۡهِمۡ أَبۡوَابَ كُلِّ شَىۡءٍ حَتَّى إِذَا فَرِحُواۡ بِمَأ أُوتُواۡ أَخَذۡنَـهُمۡ بَغۡتَةً فَإِذَا هُمۡ مُّبۡلِسُونَ
So, when they forgot that which they had been reminded, We opened for them the gates of everything, until in the midst of their enjoyment in that which they were given, all of a sudden, We punished them, and lo! They were plunged into destruction with deep regrets and sorrows. (6:44)
Therefore, Allah says here,
وَأُمۡلِي لَهُمۡ إِنَّ كَيۡدِي مَتِينٌ
And I will grant them a respite. Verily, My plan is strong.
meaning, `I will delay them, give them respite and extend their time. Yet, this is My plan, and My plot against them.' Thus, Allah says,
إِنَّ كَيۡدِي مَتِينٌ
(Verily, My plan is strong).
meaning, `great against whoever opposes My command, rejects My Messengers and dares to disobey Me.'
In the Two Sahihs it is recorded from the Messenger of Allah that he said,
إِنَّ اللهَ تَعَالى لَيُمۡلِي لِلظَّالِمِ حَتۡى إِذَا أَخَذَهُ لَمۡ يُفۡلِتۡه
Verily Allah the Exalted gives respite to the wrongdoer until He seizes him and he will not be able to escape Him. Then he recited,
وَكَذلِكَ أَخۡذُ رَبِّكَ إِذَا أَخَذَ الۡقُرَى وَهِىَ ظَـلِمَةٌ إِنَّ أَخۡذَهُ أَلِيمٌ شَدِيدٌ
Such is the punishment of your Lord when He seizes the towns while they are doing wrong. Verily, His punishment is painful (and) severe. (11:102)
In reference to Allah's statement,
أَمۡ تَسۡأَلُهُمۡ أَجۡرًا فَهُم مِّن مَّغۡرَمٍ مُّثۡقَلُونَ
أَمۡ عِندَهُمُ الۡغَيۡبُ فَهُمۡ يَكۡتُبُونَ
Or is it that you ask them for a wage, so that they are heavily burdened with debt Or that the Unseen is in their hands, so that they can write it down?
the explanation of these two Ayat preceded in Surah At-Tur.
The meaning of it is, `you, O Muhammad, call them to Allah without taking any wages from them. rather, you hope for the reward with Allah. Yet, they reject that which you have brought to them simply due to ignorance, disbelief and obstinacy.
The Command to be Patient and to refrain from being Hasty like Yunus was
فَاصۡبِرۡ لِحُكۡمِ رَبِّكَ
So wait with patience for the decision of your Lord,
`O Muhammad, persevere against the harm your people cause you and their rejection. For verily, Allah will give you authority over them, and make the final victory for you and your followers in this life and the Hereafter.'
وَلَا تَكُن كَصَاحِبِ الۡحُوتِ
and be not like the Companion of the Fish,
meaning, Dhun-Nun, who was Yunus bin Matta, when he went off angry with his people. Various things happened to him, such as riding on a ship at sea, being swallowed by a (large) fish, the fish carrying him off into the ocean, being in the darkness and depth of the sea and hearing the sea's and its dwellers glorification of the Most High, the Most Able (Allah). For He (Allah) is the One Whose execution of divine decree cannot be resisted. After all of this, he (Yunus) called out from the layers of darkness,
أَن لاَّ إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ أَنتَ سُبۡحَـنَكَ إِنِّى كُنتُ مِنَ الظَّـلِمِينَ
That none has the right to be worshipped but You (O Allah), Glorified (and Exalted) are You! Truly, I have been of the wrongdoers. (21:87)
Then Allah said concerning him,
فَاسۡتَجَبۡنَا لَهُ وَنَجَّيۡنَـهُ مِنَ الۡغَمِّ وَكَذلِكَ نُنجِـى الۡمُوۡمِنِينَ
So We answered his call, and delivered him from the distress. And thus We do deliver the believers. (21:88)
Allah also says,
فَلَوۡلَا أَنَّهُ كَانَ مِنَ الۡمُسَبِّحِينَ
لَلَبِثَ فِى بَطۡنِهِ إِلَى يَوۡمِ يُبۡعَثُونَ
Had he not been of them who glorify Allah, he would have indeed remained inside its belly (the fish) till the Day when they are resurrected. (37:143,144)
So here (in this Surah), Allah says,
إِذۡ نَادَى وَهُوَ مَكۡظُومٌ
when he cried out (to Us) while he was Makzum.
Ibn Abbas, Mujahid and As-Suddi, all said, while he was distressed.
لَوۡلَا أَن تَدَارَكَهُ نِعۡمَةٌ مِّن رَّبِّهِ لَنُبِذَ بِالۡعَرَاء وَهُوَ مَذۡمُومٌ
Had not a grace from his Lord reached him, he would indeed have been (left in the stomach of the fish, but We forgave him), so he was cast off on the naked shore, while he was to be blamed.
Then Allah goes on to say,
فَاجۡتَبَاهُ رَبُّهُ فَجَعَلَهُ مِنَ الصَّالِحِينَ
Then his Lord chose him and made him of the righteous.
Imam Ahmad recorded from Abdullah that the Messenger of Allah said,
لَاا يَنۡبَغِي لاِاَحَدٍ أَنۡ يَقُولَ أَنَا خَيۡرٌ مِنۡ يُونُسَ بۡنِ مَتَّى
It is not befitting for anyone to say that I am better than Yunus bin Matta.
Al-Bukhari recorded this Hadith and it is in the Two Sahihs reported from Abu Hurayrah.
Concerning Allah's statement
وَإِن يَكَادُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَيُزۡلِقُونَكَ بِأَبۡصَارِهِمۡ
لَمَّا سَمِعُوا الذِّكۡرَ
And verily, those who disbelieve would almost make you slip with their eyes, (through hatred) when they hear the Reminder (the Qur'an),
Ibn `Abbas, Mujahid and others have said,
(would make you slip)
In order to have some effect on you.
with their eyes, meaning,
`they will affect you by looking at you with their eyes (i.e., the evil eye).' This means `they are jealous of you due to their hatred of you, and were it not for Allah's protection of you, defending you against them (then their evil eye would harm you).'
The Effect of the Evil Eye is Real
In this Ayah is a proof that the effect of the evil eye and its affliction by the command of Allah is real. Many Hadiths have been reported concerning this through numerous routes of transmission.
The Hadith of Buraydah bin Al-Husayb Abu `Abdullah bin Majah recorded from Buraydah bin Al-Husayb that the Messenger of Allah said,
لَاا رُقۡيَةَ إِلاَّ مِنۡ عَيۡنٍ أَوۡ حُمَة
There is no Ruqyah except to cure the evil eye and the sting.
This is how Ibn Majah recorded this Hadith.
Imam Muslim also recorded this Hadith in his Sahih on the authority of Buraydah himself, but he did not attribute it to the Prophet. There is a story concerning this incident (as reported by Buraydah in Sahih Muslim), and At-Tirmidhi recorded the Hadith in this manner (like Muslim's version).
This Hadith has also been recorded by Imam Al-Bukhari, Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi on the authority of `Imran bin Husayn, however, he did not attribute it to the Prophet.
Imran's wording is,
لَاا رُقۡيَةَ إِلاَّ مِنۡ عَيۡنٍ أَوۡ حُمَة
There is no Ruqyah except to cure the evil eye and the sting.
Muslim recorded in his Sahih from Ibn `Abbas that the Prophet said,
الۡعَيۡنُ حَقٌّ وَلَوۡ كَانَ شَيۡءٌ سَابَقَ الۡقَدَرَ سَبَقَتِ الۡعَيۡنُ وَإِذَا اسۡتُغۡسِلۡتُمۡ فَاغۡسِلُوا
The evil eye is real. If anything were to overtake the divine decree (and change it, then it would be the evil eye. And if you perform Ghusl (to remove the evil eye) then wash well.
Muslim was alone in recording this Hadith, as Al-Bukhari did not mention it.
It is reported from Ibn Abbas that he said,
The Messenger of Allah used to invoke Allah's protection for Al-Hasan and Al-Husayn (his grandsons) by saying,
أُعِيذُكُمَا بِكَلِمَاتِ اللهِ التَّامَّةِ مِنۡ كُلِّ شَيۡطَانٍ وَهَامَّةٍ وَمِنۡ كُلِّ عَيۡنٍ لَامَّة
I seek protection for you two by the perfect Words of Allah from every Shaytan, and dangerous creature, and from every eye that is evil.
Then he would say:
هَكَذَا كَانَ إِبۡرَاهِيمُ يُعَوِّذُ إِسۡحَاقَ وَإِسۡمَاعِيلَ عَلَيۡهِمَا السَّلَم
Thus, did Ibrahim used to seek protection for Ishaq and Ismail (his sons).
This Hadith was recorded by Al-Bukhari and the Sunan compilers.
The Hadith of Abu Umamah As`ad bin Sahl bin Hunayf
Ibn Majah recorded from Abu Umamah As`ad bin Sahl bin Hunayf that `Amir bin Rabi`ah passed by Sahl bin Hunayf while he was bathing and he said,
I haven't seen the skin of a beautiful virgin girl nicer than this that I see today (i.e., commenting on how nice Sahl's skin was).
So he did not leave before he (Sahl) fell down on the ground. So he was brought to the Messenger of Allah and it was said to him (the Prophet) that Sahl had been afflicted by a seizure. The Prophet then said,
مَنۡ تَتَّهِمُونَ بِهِ
Who do you blame (or hold responsible) for this?
The people replied, Amir bin Rabi`ah.
Then the Prophet said,
عَلَمَ يَقۡتُلُ أَحَدُكُمۡ أَخَاهُ إِذَا رَأَى أَحَدُكُمۡ مِنۡ أَخِيهِ مَا يُعۡجِبُهُ فَلۡيَدۡعُ لَهُ بِالۡبَرَكَة
Would one of you knowingly kill his brother? If one of you sees something of his brother that he likes, then let him supplicate for blessings for him.
Then the Prophet called for some water and he commanded `Amir to perform Wudu' with the water.
So he washed his face, his hands up to his two elbows, his two knees, and the inside of his Izar.
Then the Prophet commanded him to pour the water over Sahl.
Sufyan said that Ma`mar related from Az-Zuhri that he said,
The Prophet ordered him to turn the water pot over (empty its contents over) him (Sahl) from behind him.
An-Nasa'i recorded this Hadith through different routes from Abu Umamah with the wording,
And he turned the pot over pouring its contents over him (Sahl) from behind him.
The Hadith of Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri
Ibn Majah recorded that Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri said,
The Messenger of Allah used to seek refuge from the evil eye of the Jinns and the evil eye of humans. Then when the Mu`awwidhatan were revealed, he used them (for seeking protection) and abandoned everything else.
This was recorded by At-Tirmidhi, and An-Nasa'i. At-Tirmidhi said, Hasan.
Another Hadith from Abu Sa`id Imam
Imam Ahmad recorded from Abu Sa`id that Jibril came to the Prophet and said, O Muhammad, are you suffering from any ailment?
The Prophet said,
Then Jibril said,
بِاسۡمِ اللهِ أَرۡقِيكَ مِنۡ كُلِّ شَيۡءٍ يُوۡذِيكَ وَمِنۡ شَرِّ كُلِّ نَفۡسٍ وَعَيۡنٍ تَشۡنِيكَ وَاللهُ يَشۡفِيكَ بِاسۡمِ اللهِ أَرۡقِيك
In the Name of Allah I pray over you for healing (Ruqyah), from everything that bothers you, from the evil of every soul and every evil eye that hates you, may Allah cure you, in the Name of Allah I pray over you for healing.
This Hadith has been recorded by Muslim and the Sunan compilers except for Abu Dawud.
Imam Ahmad also recorded from Abu Sa`id or Jabir bin `Abdullah that the Messenger of Allah was bothered by some illness, and Jibril came to him and said,
بِاسۡمِ اللهِ أَرۡقِيكَ مِنۡ كُلِّ شَيۡءٍ يُوۡذِيكَ مِنۡ كُلِّ حَاسِدٍ وَعَيۡنٍ اللهُ يَشۡفِيك
In the Name of Allah I pray over you for healing (Ruqyah), from everything that bothers you, from every envious person and evil eye, may Allah cure you.
The Hadith of Asma' bint `Umays
Imam Ahmad recorded from `Ubayd bin Rifa`ah Az-Zuraqi that Asma' said, O Messenger of Allah! Verily, Bani Ja`far are afflicted with the evil eye; should I seek to have Ruqyah
The Prophet replied,
نَعَمۡ فَلَوۡ كَانَ شَيۡءٌ يَسۡبِقُ الۡقَدَرَ لَسَبَقَتۡهُ الۡعَيۡن
Yes, for if anything could overcome the divine decree, it would be the evil eye.
This Hadith has been recorded like this by At-Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah, and An-Nasa'i. At-Tirmidhi said concerning it, Hasan Sahih.
The Hadith of `A'ishah
Ibn Majah recorded from `A'ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, that
the Messenger of Allah ordered her to have Ruqyah performed as a cure against the evil eye.
This was reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim.
The Hadith of Sahl bin Hunayf Imam Ahmad recorded from Abu Umamah bin Sahl bin Hunayf that his father informed him that;
the Messenger of Allah went out on a journey in the direction of Makkah and they (the Companions) accompanied him until they came to the valley of Kharrar from Al-Juhfah. They stopped there and Sahl took a bath. He (Sahl) was a white man, with a handsome body and nice skin. So the brother of Bani `Adi bin Ka`b, `Amir bin Rabi`ah looked at Sahl while he bathed and he said,
I haven't seen the skin of a beautiful virgin girl nicer than this that I see today.
Then Sahl suddenly had a seizure and fell to the ground. So he (Sahl) was brought to the Messenger of Allah and it was said to him,
O Messenger of Allah! Can you do anything for Sahl By Allah, he has not lifted his head nor has he regained consciousness.
The Prophet then said,
هَلۡ تَتَّهِمُونَ فِيهِ مِنۡ أَحَدٍ
Do you all blame (or hold responsible) anyone for what has happened to him)?
They said, `Amir bin Rabi`ah looked at him.
So the Prophet called `Amir and he was very angry with him. He said,
عَلَمَ يَقۡتُلُ أَحَدُكُمۡ أَخَاهُ هَلَّ إِذَا رَأَيۡتَ مَا يُعۡجِبُكَ بَرَّكۡتَ
Would one of you knowingly kill his brother? Why don't you ask Allah to bless your brother when you see something (of him) that you like? Then the Prophet said,
Bathe for him.
So he (`Amir) washed his face, his hands, his elbows, his knees, his feet and the inside of his Izar (waist wrapper) in a drinking vessel. Then that water was poured over him (Sahl). A man poured it over Sahl's head and his back from behind him, then the container was turned upside down and emptied behind him. This was done, and afterwards Sahl recovered and left with the people having nothing wrong with him.
The Hadith of `Amir bin Rabi`ah
Imam Ahmad recorded in his Musnad that `Ubaydullah bin `Amir said,
`Amir bin Rabi`ah and Sahl bin Hanayf went off together intending to bathe. So they went about their business using coverings (to cover their nakedness). So `Amir removed a cloak of wool that he (Sahl) was using to conceal himself. He (`Amir) said, `I looked at him and my eye fell upon him while he was pouring water on himself bathing. Then I heard a loud splash in the water coming from where he was. So I went to him, and I called him three times, but he did not answer me. So I went to the Prophet and informed him. Then, the Prophet came walking, and he was wading in the water. I can still picture the whiteness of his shins. When he came to Sahl (who was unconscious), he hit him on his chest with his hand and said,
اللۡهُمَّ اصۡرِفۡ عَنۡهُ حَرَّهَا وَبَرۡدَهَا وَوَصَبَهَا
O Allah! Remove from him its heat, its cold and its pain.
He (Sahl) then stood up, and Allah's Messenger said,
إِذَا رَأَى أَحَدُكُمۡ مِنۡ أَخِيهِ أَوۡ مِنۡ نَفۡسِهِ أَوۡ مِنۡ مَالِهِ مَا يُعۡجِبُهُ فَلۡيُبَرِّكۡ فَإِنَّ الۡعَيۡنَ حَق
If one of you sees in his brother, or himself, or his wealth that which pleases him, then he should ask Allah to bless it, for verily, the evil eye is real.
The Accusation of the Disbelievers and the Reply to Them
وَيَقُولُونَ إِنَّهُ لَمَجۡنُونٌ
and they say:Verily, he is a madman!
meaning, they cut at him with their eyes and attack him with their tongues saying, Verily, he is a madman. They say this because he came with the Qur'an.
Allah then says,
وَمَا هُوَ إِلاَّ ذِكۡرٌ لِّلۡعَالَمِينَ
But it is nothing else but a Reminder to all the creatures (`Alamin).
This is the end of the Tafsir of Surah Al-Qalam, and all praise and blessing belong to Allah.
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