Ayah

Word by Word
فَمَن
So whoever
يُرِدِ
wants
ٱللَّهُ
Allah
أَن
that
يَهۡدِيَهُۥ
He guides him
يَشۡرَحۡ
He expands
صَدۡرَهُۥ
his breast
لِلۡإِسۡلَٰمِۖ
to Islam
وَمَن
and whoever
يُرِدۡ
He wants
أَن
that
يُضِلَّهُۥ
He lets him go astray
يَجۡعَلۡ
He makes
صَدۡرَهُۥ
his breast
ضَيِّقًا
tight
حَرَجٗا
and constricted
كَأَنَّمَا
as though
يَصَّعَّدُ
he (were) climbing
فِي
into
ٱلسَّمَآءِۚ
the sky
كَذَٰلِكَ
Thus
يَجۡعَلُ
places
ٱللَّهُ
Allah
ٱلرِّجۡسَ
the filth
عَلَى
on
ٱلَّذِينَ
those who
لَا
(do) not
يُؤۡمِنُونَ
believe
فَمَن
So whoever
يُرِدِ
wants
ٱللَّهُ
Allah
أَن
that
يَهۡدِيَهُۥ
He guides him
يَشۡرَحۡ
He expands
صَدۡرَهُۥ
his breast
لِلۡإِسۡلَٰمِۖ
to Islam
وَمَن
and whoever
يُرِدۡ
He wants
أَن
that
يُضِلَّهُۥ
He lets him go astray
يَجۡعَلۡ
He makes
صَدۡرَهُۥ
his breast
ضَيِّقًا
tight
حَرَجٗا
and constricted
كَأَنَّمَا
as though
يَصَّعَّدُ
he (were) climbing
فِي
into
ٱلسَّمَآءِۚ
the sky
كَذَٰلِكَ
Thus
يَجۡعَلُ
places
ٱللَّهُ
Allah
ٱلرِّجۡسَ
the filth
عَلَى
on
ٱلَّذِينَ
those who
لَا
(do) not
يُؤۡمِنُونَ
believe

Translation

Those whom Allah (in His plan) willeth to guide,- He openeth their breast to Islam; those whom He willeth to leave straying,- He maketh their breast close and constricted, as if they had to climb up to the skies: thus doth Allah (heap) the penalty on those who refuse to believe.

Tafsir

Whomever God desires to guide, He expands his breast to Islam, by casting into his heart a light which it [the heart] expands for and accepts, as reported in a hadeeth; and whomever He, God, desires to send astray, He makes his breast narrow (read dayqan or dayyiqan), [unable] to accept it, and constricted, extremely tight (read harijan, 'constricted', as an adjective, or harajan as a verbal noun, by which it [the heart of the misguided one] is described hyperbolically) as if he were engaged in ascent (yassa''ad, is also read as yassaa'ad: in both [forms] the original taa' has been assimilated with the saad; a third [variant reading] has yas'ad) to the sky, when he is charged with [the obligations of] the faith, because of the hardship for him therein. So, like this making [of the breast narrow], God casts ignominy, chastisement, or [He casts] Satan, that is, He gives him authority, over those who do not believe.

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