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Therein is fruit and date-palms, producing spathes (enclosing dates);
In it are fruits and, the familiar, date-palms with sheaths, the spathes containing its flowers,
Tafsir of Surah Ar-Rahman
Ar-Rahman revealed and taught the Qur'an
Allah informs of His favors and His mercy for His creatures, for He revealed the Qur'an to His servants, He made memorizing and understanding of it easy for those on whom He has bestowed His mercy,
He has taught the Qur'an.
He created man.
He taught him Al-Bayan.
Al-Hasan said:Eloquent speech.
This refers to Allah teaching the Qur'an, that is, teaching the servants how to recite it by making it easy for them to speak and pronounce letters with the various parts of the mouth, such as the alveolar bridge, the tongue and the lips
Among Allah's Signs:the Sun, the Moon, the Sky and the Earth
الشَّمۡسُ وَالۡقَمَرُ بِحُسۡبَانٍ
The sun and the moon (run) on fixed courses.
They move in their orbit in perfect succession, according to precise calculation that is never delayed nor disturbed,
لَا الشَّمۡسُ يَنبَغِى لَهَأ أَن تدۡرِكَ القَمَرَ وَلَا الَّيۡلُ سَابِقُ النَّهَارِ وَكُلٌّ فِى فَلَكٍ يَسۡبَحُونَ
It is not for the sun to overtake the moon, nor does the night outstrip the day. They all float, each in an orbit. (36:40),
فَالِقُ الاِصۡبَاحِ وَجَعَلَ الَّيۡلَ سَكَناً وَالشَّمۡسَ وَالۡقَمَرَ حُسۡبَاناً ذَلِكَ تَقۡدِيرُ الۡعَزِيزِ الۡعَلِيمِ
(He is the) Cleaver of the daybreak. He has appointed the night for resting, and the sun and the moon for calculating. Such is the measuring of the Almighty, the All-Knowing. (6:96),
وَالنَّجۡمُ وَالشَّجَرُ يَسۡجُدَانِ
And the Najm and the trees prostrating.
Ibn Jarir commented,
Scholars of Tafsir disagreed over the meaning of Allah's statement, `And the Najm.' They agreed, however, that the trees mentioned here are those that stand on trunks.
Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas said,
An-Najm refers to the plants that lay on the ground.
Similar was said by Sa`id bin Jubayr, As-Suddi and Sufyan Ath-Thawri.
This is what Ibn Jarir preferred, may Allah have mercy upon him.
An-Najm (the star); the one that is in the sky.
Al-Hasan and Qatadah said similarly.
This is the saying that is the most obvious, and Allah knows best, for Allah the Exalted said,
أَلَمۡ تَرَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَسۡجُدُ لَهُ مَن فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَمَن فِى الاٌّرۡضِ وَالشَّمۡسُ وَالۡقَمَرُ وَالنُّجُومُ وَالۡجِبَالُ وَالشَّجَرُ وَالدَّوَابُّ وَكَثِيرٌ مِّنَ النَّاسِ
See you not that whoever is in the heavens and whoever is on the earth, and the sun, and the moon, and the stars, and the mountains, and the trees, and the moving creatures, and many of mankind prostrate themselves to Allah. (22:18)
وَالسَّمَاء رَفَعَهَا وَوَضَعَ الۡمِيزَانَ
And the heaven He has raised high, and He has set up the balance.
meaning the justice,
as He said in another Ayah,
لَقَدۡ أَرۡسَلۡنَا رُسُلَنَا بِالۡبَيِّنَـتِ وَأَنزَلۡنَا مَعَهُمُ الۡكِتَـبَ وَالۡمِيزَانَ لِيَقُومَ النَّاسُ بِالۡقِسۡطِ
Indeed, We have sent Our Messengers with clear proofs, and sent down with them the Book and the balance that mankind may keep up equity. (57:25)
Allah said here,
أَلاَّ تَطۡغَوۡا فِي الۡمِيزَانِ
In order that you may not transgress the balance.
meaning, He created the heavens and earth in justice and truth so that everything is founded on, and observing, justice and truth.
وَأَقِيمُوا الۡوَزۡنَ بِالۡقِسۡطِ وَلَاأ تُخۡسِرُوا الۡمِيزَانَ
And observe the weight with equity and do not make the balance deficient.
meaning, do not cheat in the weights and measures, but rather observe justice and fairness,
وَزِنُواۡ بِالۡقِسۡطَاسِ الۡمُسۡتَقِيمِ
And weigh with the true and straight balance. (26:182)
وَالاۡاَرۡضَ وَضَعَهَا لِلۡاَنَامِ
And the earth He has put down (laid) for Al-Ana'm.
Allah raised the heavens and put down, or laid, the earth and balanced it with firm mountains, so that it would be stable for its residents that live on it, i.e. the various types and kinds of creatures, different in species, shape, color and language.
Ibn Abbas, Mujahid, Qatadah and Ibn Zayd said that Al-An'am means the creatures
Therein are fruits, (of various colors, taste and scent),
وَالنَّخۡلُ ذَاتُ الاۡاَكۡمَامِ
and date palms producing Akmam.
Allah mentioned the date tree here specifically because of its benefit, both fresh and dry.
Ibn Jurayj reported that Ibn Abbas said said Al-Akmam, means
sheathed fruit stalks.
Similar was said by more than one of the scholars of Tafsir, it refers to the stalks that the seeds grow in to become a cluster of dates, unripe green dates then they ripen and ripen more.
وَالۡحَبُّ ذُو الۡعَصۡفِ وَالرَّيۡحَانُ
And also corn, with (its) `Asf, and Rayhan.
Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn Abbas said that in,
وَالۡحَبُّ ذُو الۡعَصۡفِ
(And also corn, with (its) `Asf), `Asf means straw.
Al-Awfi reported from Ibn Abbas,
`Asf is green leaves cut from the stem, so it is called `Asf when it dries out.
Similarly, Qatadah, Ad-Dahhak and Abu Malik said that `Asfmeans straw.
Ibn Abbas, Mujahid and others said that Rayhan means leaves, while Al-Hasan said that it means sweet-scented plants.
Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas said that Rayhan means green leaves.
The meanings here, and Allah knows best, are the various crops that produce straw, such as wheat and barley, and Rayhan are the leaves that grow on the stems.
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