Word by Word
and the disbelievers
and the disbelievers
O ye who believe! take not for friends and protectors those who take your religion for a mockery or sport,- whether among those who received the Scripture before you, or among those who reject Faith; but fear ye Allah, if ye have faith (indeed).
O you who believe, do not take as patrons those who take your religion in mockery, [as something] to be mocked, and as a game, from among (min is explicative) those who were given the Scripture before you and [from among] the disbelievers (read al-kuffaari or al-kuffaara), the idolaters - and fear God, by refraining from affiliating with them, if you are believers, [if you are] truthful in your faith.
"The Prohibition of Taking the Jews, Christians and Enemies of Islam as Friends
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ امَنُواۡ لَا تَتَّخِذُواۡ الۡيَهُودَ وَالنَّصَارَى أَوۡلِيَاء بَعۡضُهُمۡ أَوۡلِيَاء بَعۡضٍ
O you who believe! Do not take friends from the Jews and the Christians, as they are but friends of each other.
Allah forbids His believing servants from having Jews and Christians as friends, because they are the enemies of Islam and its people, may Allah curse them.
Allah then states that they are friends of each other and He gives a warning threat to those who do this,
وَمَن يَتَوَلَّهُم مِّنكُمۡ فَإِنَّهُ مِنۡهُمۡ
And if any among you befriends them, then surely he is one of them.
Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that;
Umar ordered Abu Musa Al-Ashari to send him on one sheet of balance the count of what he took in and what he spent. Abu Musa then had a Christian scribe, and he was able to comply with Omar's demand.
Umar liked what he saw and exclaimed, “This scribe is proficient. Would you read in the Masjid a letter that came to us from Ash-Sham?”
Abu Musa said, `He cannot.”
Umar said, “Is he not pure?”
Abu Musa said, “No, but he is Christian.”
Abu Musa said, “So `Umar admonished me and poked my thigh (with his finger), saying, `Drive him out (from Al-Madinah).'
He then recited,
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ امَنُواۡ لَا تَتَّخِذُواۡ الۡيَهُودَ وَالنَّصَارَى أَوۡلِيَاء
O you who believe! Take not the Jews and the Christians as friends...”
Then he reported that Abdullah bin `Utbah said,
“Let one of you beware that he might be a Jew or a Christian, while unaware.”
The narrator of this statement said, “We thought that he was referring to the Ayah,
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ امَنُواۡ لَا تَتَّخِذُواۡ الۡيَهُودَ وَالنَّصَارَى أَوۡلِيَاء
(O you who believe! Take not the Jews and the Christians as friends),”
إِنَّ اللّهَ لَا يَهۡدِي الۡقَوۡمَ الظَّالِمِينَ
Verily, Allah guides not those people who are the wrongdoers.
""فَتَرَى الَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِم مَّرَضٌ
And you see those in whose hearts there is a disease...,
A disease of doubt, hesitation and hypocrisy.
they hurry to their friendship,
meaning, they rush to offer them their friendship and allegiances in secret and in public.
يَقُولُونَ نَخۡشَى أَن تُصِيبَنَا دَايِرَةٌ
saying:”We fear lest some misfortune of a disaster may befall us.”
They thus offer this excuse for their friendship and allegiances to the disbelievers, saying that they fear that the disbelievers might defeat the Muslims, so they want to be in favor with the Jews and Christians, to use this favor for their benefit in that eventuality!
فَعَسَى اللّهُ أَن يَأۡتِيَ بِالۡفَتۡحِ
Perhaps Allah may bring a victory...,
According to As-Suddi,
referring to the conquering of Makkah.
أَوۡ أَمۡرٍ مِّنۡ عِندِهِ
or a decision according to His will,
means, requiring the Jews and Christians to pay the Jizyah.
Then they will become,
meaning, the hypocrites who gave their friendship to the Jews and Christians, will become,
عَلَى مَا أَسَرُّواۡ فِي أَنۡفُسِهِمۡ
for what they have been keeping as a secret in themselves,
for their friendship with the Jews and Christians which did not benefit them or protect them from any harm. Rather, it was nothing but harm, as Allah exposed their true reality to His faithful servants in this life, although they tried to conceal it.
When the signs that exposed their hypocrisy were compiled against them, their matter became clear to Allah's faithful servants. So the believers were amazed at these hypocrites who pretended to be believers, swearing to their faithfulness, yet their claims were all lies and deceit.
This is why Allah said,
وَيَقُولُ الَّذِينَ امَنُواۡ أَهَـوُلاء الَّذِينَ أَقۡسَمُواۡ بِاللّهِ جَهۡدَ أَيۡمَانِهِمۡ إِنَّهُمۡ لَمَعَكُمۡ حَبِطَتۡ أَعۡمَالُهُمۡ فَأَصۡبَحُواۡ خَاسِرِينَ""
""And those who believe will say, “Are these the men who swore their strongest oaths by Allah that they were with you!” All that they did has been in vain, and they have become the losers.""
""Threatening to Replace the Believers With Another People if They Revert from Islam
Allah emphasizes His mighty ability and states that whoever reverts from supporting His religion and establishing His Law, then Allah will replace them with whomever is better, mightier and more righteous in Allah's religion and Law.
Allah said in other Ayat,
وَإِن تَتَوَلَّوۡاۡ يَسۡتَبۡدِلۡ قَوۡماً غَيۡرَكُمۡ ثُمَّ لَا يَكُونُواۡ أَمۡثَـلَكُم
And if you turn away, He will exchange you for some other people and they will not be your likes. (47:38)
أَلَمۡ تَرَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ خَلَقَ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالَارۡضَ بِالۡحقِّ إِن يَشَأۡ يُذۡهِبۡكُمۡ وَيَأۡتِ بِخَلۡقٍ جَدِيدٍ
وَمَا ذَلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ بِعَزِيزٍ
Do you not see that Allah has created the heavens and the earth with truth If He will, He can remove you and bring (in your place) a new creation! And for Allah that is not hard or difficult. (14:19-20)
Verily this is not difficult or hard on Allah.
Allah said here,
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ امَنُواۡ مَن يَرۡتَدَّ مِنكُمۡ عَن دِينِهِ
O you who believe! Whoever from among you turns back from his religion...,
and turns back from the truth to falsehood, from now until the commencement of the Last Hour.
فَسَوۡفَ يَأۡتِي اللّهُ بِقَوۡمٍ يُحِبُّهُمۡ وَيُحِبُّونَهُ
Allah will bring a people whom He will love and they will love Him;
Allah said next,
أَذِلَّةٍ عَلَى الۡمُوۡمِنِينَ أَعِزَّةٍ عَلَى الۡكَافِرِينَ
humble towards the believers, stern towards the disbelievers.
These are the qualities of perfect believers, as they are humble with their believing brothers and allies, stern with their enemies and adversaries. In another Ayah, Allah said,
مُّحَمَّدٌ رَّسُولُ اللَّهِ وَالَّذِينَ مَعَهُ أَشِدَّاءُ عَلَى الۡكُفَّارِ رُحَمَأءُ بَيۡنَهُمۡ
Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. And those who are with him are severe against disbelievers, and merciful among themselves. (48;29)
The Prophet is described as the smiling fighter, smiling to his allies and fighting his enemies.
يُجَاهِدُونَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ وَلَا يَخَافُونَ لَوۡمَةَ لايِمٍ
Fighting in the way of Allah, and never fearing the blame of the blamers.
Nothing prevents them from obeying Allah, establishing His Law, fighting His enemies, enjoining righteousness and forbidding evil. Certainly, nothing prevents them from taking this path, neither someone who seeks to hinder them, nor one who blames or chastises them.
Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Dharr said,
“My Khalil (intimate friend, the Messenger) has commanded me to do seven deeds.
He commanded me to love the poor and to be close to them.
He commanded me to look at those who are less than me and not those who are above me.
He commanded me to keep the relations of the womb, even if they cut it.
He commanded me not to ask anyone for anything,
to say the truth even if it was bitter, and
to not fear the blame of anyone for the sake of Allah.
He commanded me to often repeat, La hawla wa la quwwata illa billah (There is no strength or power except from Allah)', for these words are from a treasure under the Throne (of Allah).”
It is confirmed in the Sahih;
مَا يَنۡبَغِي لِلۡمُوۡمِنِ أَنۡ يُذِلَّ نَفۡسَه
The believer is not required to humiliate himself.
He was asked; “How does one humiliate himself, O Messenger of Allah?”
So he replied;
يَتَحَمَّلُ مِنَ الۡبَلَءِ مَا لَا يُطِيق
He takes on tests that he cannot bear.
ذَلِكَ فَضۡلُ اللّهِ يُوۡتِيهِ مَن يَشَاء
That is the grace of Allah which He bestows on whom He wills.
meaning, those who have these qualities, acquired it by Allah's bounty and favor and because He granted them these qualities.
وَاللّهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ
And Allah is All-Sufficient for His creatures' needs, All-Knower.
His favor is ever extending, and He has perfect knowledge of those who deserve or do not deserve His favor and bounty.
""إِنَّمَا وَلِيُّكُمُ اللّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَالَّذِينَ امَنُواۡ
Verily, your Protector is Allah, His Messenger, and the believers...,
means, the Jews are not your friends. Rather, your allegiance is to Allah, His Messenger and the faithful believers.
الَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَةَ وَيُوۡتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ
those who perform the Salah, and give the Zakah...,
referring to the believers who have these qualities and establish the prayer, which is one of the most important pillars of Islam, for it includes worshipping Allah alone without partners. They pay Zakah, which is the right of the creation and a type of help extended to the needy and the poor.
As for Allah's statement,
and they bow down,
some people thought that they give the Zakah while bowing down. If this were the case, then paying the Zakah while bowing would be the best form of giving Zakah. No scholar from whom religious rulings are taken says this, as much as we know.
(and they bow down),
means, they attend the prayer in congregation in Allah's Masjids and spend by way of charity on the various needs of Muslims.
وَمَن يَتَوَلَّ اللّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَالَّذِينَ امَنُواۡ فَإِنَّ حِزۡبَ اللّهِ هُمُ الۡغَالِبُونَ""
""And whosoever takes Allah, His Messenger, and those who have believed, as protectors, then the party of Allah will be the victorious.
similarly Allah said;
كَتَبَ اللَّهُ لاّغۡلِبَنَّ أَنَاۡ وَرُسُلِى إِنَّ اللَّهَ قَوِىٌّ عَزِيزٌ
لااَّ تَجِدُ قَوۡماً يُوۡمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالۡيَوۡمِ الااٌّخِرِ يُوَادُّونَ مَنۡ حَأدَّ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَلَوۡ كَانُواۡ ءَابَأءَهُمۡ أَوۡ أَبۡنَأءَهُمۡ أَوۡ إِخۡوَنَهُمۡ أَوۡ عَشِيرَتَهُمۡ أُوۡلَـيِكَ كَتَبَ فِى قُلُوبِهِمُ الااِيمَـنَ وَأَيَّدَهُمۡ بِرُوحٍ مِّنۡهُ وَيُدۡخِلُهُمۡ جَنَّـتٍ تَجۡرِى مِن تَحۡتِهَا الااٌّنۡهَـرُ خَـلِدِينَ فِيهَا رَضِىَ اللَّهُ عَنۡهُمۡ وَرَضُواۡ عَنۡهُ أُوۡلَـيِكَ حِزۡبُ اللَّهِ أَلَا إِنَّ حِزۡبَ اللَّهِ هُمُ الۡمُفۡلِحُونَ
Allah has decreed:”Verily, it is I and My Messengers who shall be the victorious.” Verily, Allah is All-Powerful, Almighty.
You will not find any people who believe in Allah and the Last Day, making friendship with those who oppose Allah and His Messenger, even though they were their fathers or their sons or their brothers or their kindred (people). For such He has written faith in their hearts, and strengthened them with a Ruh (proof) from Himself. And He will admit them to Gardens (Paradise) under which rivers flow to dwell therein (forever). Allah is pleased with them, and they with Him. They are the party of Allah. Verily, it is the party of Allah that will be the successful. (58:21-22)
Therefore, those who accept the allegiance of Allah - His Messenger and the faithful believers - will gain success in this life and the Hereafter. Hence Allah's statement here,
وَمَن يَتَوَلَّ اللّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَالَّذِينَ امَنُواۡ فَإِنَّ حِزۡبَ اللّهِ هُمُ الۡغَالِبُونَ
(And whosoever takes Allah, His Messenger, and those who have believed, as protectors, then the party of Allah will be the victorious).
""The Prohibition of Being Loyal Friends with Disbelievers
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ امَنُواۡ لَا تَتَّخِذُواۡ الَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُواۡ دِينَكُمۡ هُزُوًا وَلَعِبًا
O you who believe! Do not take as friends those who take your religion for a mockery and fun,
This Ayah discourages and forbids taking the enemies of Islam and its people, such as the People of the Book and the polytheists, as friends. These disbelievers mock the most important acts that any person could ever perform, the honorable, pure acts of Islam which include all types of good for this life and the Hereafter. They mock such acts and make them the subject of jest and play, because this is what these acts represent in their misguided minds and cold hearts.
مِّنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُواۡ الۡكِتَابَ مِن قَبۡلِكُمۡ وَالۡكُفَّارَ
from those who received the Scriptures before you and (nor) the disbelievers...,
This is to clarify the particular category (of disbelievers).
As Allah said,
فَاجۡتَنِبُواۡ الرِّجۡسَ مِنَ الاٌّوۡثَـنِ
So shun the evil of the idols... (22:30)
So some recited it “Kuffari”, making it an object of the preposition, and others recited it “Kuffara”, making it a predicate noun;
لَا تَتَّخِذُواۡ الَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُواۡ دِينَكُمۡ هُزُوًا وَلَعِبًا مِّنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُواۡ الۡكِتَابَ مِن قَبۡلِكُمۡ
Take not as friends those who take your religion for a mockery and fun from those who received the Scriptures before you...,
with the meaning of “nor”,
nor the disbelievers as friends,
That is, do not take these people nor those people as friends.
The meaning here of “Kuffar” (disbelievers) is idolators.
Similarly, Ibn Jarir recorded that;
in the recitation of Ibn Mas`ud (in place of “Kuffar” he recited it:”and those who commit Shirk.”
وَاتَّقُواۡ اللّهَ إِن كُنتُم مُّوۡمِنِينَ
And have Taqwa of Allah if you indeed are true believers.
means, fear Allah and do not take the enemies of you and your religion as friends, if you believe in Allah's Law and religion that these people mocked and jested about.
Allah said in another Ayah,
لااَّ يَتَّخِذِ الۡمُوۡمِنُونَ الۡكَـفِرِينَ أَوۡلِيَأءَ مِن دُونِ الۡمُوۡمِنِينَ وَمَن يَفۡعَلۡ ذَلِكَ فَلَيۡسَ مِنَ اللَّهِ فِي شَىۡءٍ إِلَا أَن تَتَّقُواۡ مِنۡهُمۡ تُقَـةً وَيُحَذِّرۡكُمُ اللَّهُ نَفۡسَهُ وَإِلَى اللَّهِ الۡمَصِيرُ
Let not the believers take the disbelievers as friends instead of the believers, and whoever does that, will never be helped by Allah in any way, except if you indeed fear a danger from them. And Allah warns you against Himself, and to Allah is the final return. (3:28)
The Disbelievers Mock the Prayer and the Adhan
""وَإِذَا نَادَيۡتُمۡ إِلَى الصَّلَةِ اتَّخَذُوهَا هُزُوًا وَلَعِبًا
And when you proclaim the call for the Salah, they take it (but) as a mockery and fun;
When you proclaim the Adhan for the prayer, which is the best action there is, for those who have sound minds and good comprehension,
(they take it...) also,
هُزُوًا وَلَعِبًا ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمۡ قَوۡمٌ لاَّ يَعۡقِلُونَ
as a mockery and fun; that is because they are a people who understand not.
the acts of worship and Allah's Law.
These are the characteristics of the followers of Shaytan who,
إِذَا سَمِعَ الاَۡذَانَ أَدۡبَرَ وَلَهُ حُصَاصٌ أَيۡ ضُرَاطٌ حَتَّى لَا يَسۡمَعَ التَّأۡذِينَ فَإِذَا قُضِيَ التَّأۡذِينُ أَقۡبَلَ فَإِذَا ثُوِّبَ لِلصَّلَةِ أَدۡبَرَ فَإِذَا قُضِيَ التَّثۡوِيبُ أَقۡبَلَ حَتَّى يَخۡطُرَ بَيۡنَ الۡمَرۡءِ وَقَلۡبِهِ فَيَقُولُ اذۡكُرۡ كَذَا اذۡكُرۡ كَذَا لِمَا لَمۡ يَكُنۡ يَذۡكُرُ حَتَّى يَظَلَّ الرَّجُلُ لَا يَدۡرِي كَمۡ صَلَّى فَإِذَا وَجَدَ أَحَدُكُمۡ ذلِكَ فَلۡيَسۡجُدۡ سَجۡدَتَيۡنِ قَبۡلَ السَّلَم
When the call for prayer is made, Shaytan takes to his heels passing wind so that he may not hear the Adhan. When the call is finished he comes back, and when the Iqamah is pronounced, Shaytan again takes to his heels. When the Iqamah is finished he comes back again and tries to interfere with the person and his thoughts and to say, `Remember this and that,' which he has not thought of before the prayer, until the praying person forgets how much he has prayed. If anyone of you does not remember, then he should perform two prostrations before pronouncing the Salam.
This Hadith is agreed upon.
“Allah mentioned the Adhan in His Book,
وَإِذَا نَادَيۡتُمۡ إِلَى الصَّلَةِ اتَّخَذُوهَا هُزُوًا وَلَعِبًا
ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمۡ قَوۡمٌ لاَّ يَعۡقِلُونَ
And when you proclaim the call for the Salah, they take it (but) as a mockery and fun; that is because they are a people who understand not.”
Ibn Abi Hatim recorded this statement."
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