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And those who
And those who
And those who, when an oppressive wrong is inflicted on them, (are not cowed but) help and defend themselves.
and those who, when they suffer aggression, injustice, defend themselves - these are another category - that is to say, they retaliate against those who wrong them in the same manner in which the latter wronged them, as God, exalted be He, says:
Among the Signs of Allah is the Creation of the Heavens and the Earth
And among His Ayat,
means, the signs which point to His great might and power,
خَلۡقُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالاَۡرۡضِ وَمَا بَثَّ فِيهِمَا
is the creation of the heavens and the earth, and whatever moving creatures He has dispersed in them both.
means, whatever He has created in them, i.e., in the heavens and the earth.
and whatever moving creatures,
this includes the angels, men, Jinn and all the animals with their different shapes, colors, languages, natures, kinds and types. He has distributed them throughout the various regions of the heavens and earth.
means, yet despite all that,
عَلَى جَمۡعِهِمۡ إِذَا يَشَاء قَدِيرٌ
is Able to assemble them whenever He wills.
means, on the Day of Resurrection, He will gather the first and the last of them, and bring all His creatures together in one place where they will all hear the voice of the caller and all of them will be seen clearly; then He will judge between them with justice and truth.
The Cause of Misfortune is Sin
وَمَا أَصَابَكُم مِّن مُّصِيبَةٍ فَبِمَا كَسَبَتۡ أَيۡدِيكُمۡ
And whatever of misfortune befalls you, it is because of what your hands have earned.
means, `whatever disasters happen to you, O mankind, are because of sins that you have committed in the past.'
وَيَعۡفُو عَن كَثِيرٍ
And He pardons much.
means, of sins;
`He does not punish you for them, rather He forgives you.'
وَلَوۡ يُوَاخِذُ اللَّهُ النَّاسَ بِمَا كَسَبُواۡ مَا تَرَكَ عَلَى ظَهۡرِهَا مِن دَابَّةٍ
And if Allah were to punish men for that which they earned, He would not leave a moving creature on the surface of the earth. (35:45)
According to a Sahih Hadith:
وَالَّذِي نَفۡسِي بِيَدِهِ مَا يُصِيبُ الۡمُوۡمِنَ مِنۡ نَصَبٍ وَلَاا وَصَبٍ وَلَاا هَمَ وَلَاا حَزَنٍ إِلاَّ كَفَّرَ اللهُ عَنۡهُ بِهَا مِنۡ خَطَايَاهُ حَتۡى الشَّوۡكَةِ يُشَاكُهَا
By the One in Whose Hand is my soul, no believer is stricken with fatigue, exhaustion, worry or grief, but Allah will forgive him for some of his sins thereby -- even a thorn which pricks him.
Imam Ahmad recorded that Mu`awiyah bin Abi Sufyan, may Allah be pleased with him, said,
I heard the Messenger of Allah say:
مَا مِنۡ شَيۡءٍ يُصِيبُ الۡمُوۡمِنَ فِي جَسَدِهِ يُوۡذِيهِ إِلاَّ كَفَّرَ اللهُ تَعَالَى عَنۡهُ بِهِ مِنۡ سَيِّيَاتِه
No physical harm befalls a believer, but Allah will expiate for some of his sins because of it.
Imam Ahmad also recorded that `A'ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, said,
The Messenger of Allah said:
إِذَا كَثُرَتۡ ذُنُوبُ الۡعَبۡدِ وَلَمۡ يَكُنۡ لَهُ مَا يُكَفِّرُهَا ابۡتَلَهُ اللهُ تَعَالَى بِالۡحَزَنِ لِيُكَفِّرَهَا
If a person commits many sins and has nothing that will expiate for them, Allah will test him with some grief that will expiate for them.
وَمَا أَنتُم بِمُعۡجِزِينَ فِي الاَۡرۡضِ
وَمَا لَكُم مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ مِن وَلِيٍّ وَلَا نَصِيرٍ
And you cannot escape from Allah in the earth, and besides Allah you have neither any protector nor any helper
Ships are also among the Signs of Allah
وَمِنۡ ايَاتِهِ الۡجَوَارِ فِي الۡبَحۡرِ كَالاَۡعۡلَمِ
And among His signs are the ships in the sea like mountains.
Allah tells us that another sign of His great power and dominion is the fact that He has subjugated the sea so that ships may sail in it by His command, so they sail in the sea like mountains.
This was the view of Mujahid, Al-Hasan, As-Suddi and Ad-Dahhak.
In other words, these ships on the sea are like mountains on land
إِن يَشَأۡ يُسۡكِنِ الرِّيحَ
If He wills, He causes the wind to cease,
means, the winds that cause the ships to travel on the sea. If He willed, He could cause the winds to cease,
فَيَظۡلَلۡنَ رَوَاكِدَ عَلَى ظَهۡرِهِ
then they would become motionless on the surface (of the sea).
ie then the ships would not move and would remain still, neither coming nor going, staying where they are on the surface of the water.
إِنَّ فِي ذَلِكَ لَايَاتٍ لِّكُلِّ صَبَّارٍ
Verily, in this are signs for everyone patient,
means, who is patient in the face of adversity
means, in the fact that Allah has subjugated the sea and He sends as much wind as they need in order to travel, there are signs of His blessings to His creation for everyone who is patient, i.e., at times of difficulty, and grateful, i.e., at times of ease
أَوۡ يُوبِقۡهُنَّ بِمَا كَسَبُوا
Or He may destroy them because of that which their (people) have earned.
means, if He wills, He may destroy the ships and drown them, because of the sins of the people on board.
وَيَعۡفُ عَن كَثِيرٍ
And He pardons much.
means, of their sins;
if He were to punish them for all of their sins, He would destroy everyone who sails on the sea.
Some of the scholars interpreted the Ayah
أَوۡ يُوبِقۡهُنَّ بِمَا كَسَبُوا
(Or He may destroy them because of that which their (people) have earned).
as meaning, if He willed, He could send the wind to blow fiercely so that it would take the ships and divert them from their courses, driving them to the right or the left, so that they would be lost and would not be able to follow their intended path.
This interpretation also includes the idea of their being destroyed.
This also fits the first meaning, which is that if Allah willed, He could cause the wind to cease, in which case the ships would stop moving, or He could make the wind fierce, in which case the ships would be lost and destroyed. But by His grace and mercy, He sends the wind according to their needs, just as He sends rain that is sufficient. If He sent too much rain, it would destroy their houses, and if He sent too little, their crops and fruits would not grow.
In the case of lands such as Egypt, He sends water from another land, because they do not need rain; if rain were to fall upon them, it would destroy their houses and cause walls to collapse.
وَيَعۡلَمَ الَّذِينَ يُجَادِلُونَ فِي ايَاتِنَا مَا لَهُم مِّن مَّحِيصٍ
And those who dispute as regards Our Ayat may know that there is no place of refuge for them.
means, they have no means of escape from Our torment and vengeance, for they are subdued by Our power
The Attributes of Those Who deserve that which is with Allah
Here Allah points out the insignificance of this worldly life and its transient adornments and luxuries.
فَمَا أُوتِيتُم مِّن شَيۡءٍ فَمَتَاعُ الۡحَيَاةِ الدُّنۡيَا
So whatever you have been given is but (a passing) enjoyment for this worldly life.
means, no matter what you achieve and amass, do not be deceived by it, for it is only the enjoyment of this life, which is the lower, transient realm that will undoubtedly come to an end.
وَمَا عِندَ اللَّهِ خَيۡرٌ وَأَبۡقَى
but that which is with Allah is better and more lasting,
means, the reward of Allah is better than this world, and it will last forever, so do not give preference to that which is transient over that which is lasting.
for those who believe,
means, for those who are patient in forgoing the pleasures of this world,
وَعَلَى رَبِّهِمۡ يَتَوَكَّلُونَ
and put their trust in their Lord.
means, so that He will help them to be patient in doing what is obligatory and avoiding what is forbidden.
Then Allah says
وَالَّذِينَ يَجۡتَنِبُونَ كَبَايِرَ الاۡاِثۡمِ وَالۡفَوَاحِشَ
And those who shun the greater sins, and Al-Fawahish,
We have already discussed sin and Al-Fawahish in Surah Al-A`raf.
وَإِذَا مَا غَضِبُوا هُمۡ يَغۡفِرُونَ
and when they are angry, they forgive.
means, their nature dictates that they should forgive people and be tolerant. Vengeance is not in their nature.
It was reported in the Sahih that the Messenger of Allah never took revenge for his own sake, only when the sacred Laws of Allah were violated
وَالَّذِينَ اسۡتَجَابُوا لِرَبِّهِمۡ
And those who answer the Call of their Lord,
means, they follow His Messenger and obey His commands and avoid that which He has prohibited.
and perform As-Salah,
-- which is the greatest act of worship of Allah, may He be glorified.
وَأَمۡرُهُمۡ شُورَى بَيۡنَهُمۡ
and who (conduct) their affairs by mutual consultation,
means, they do not make a decision without consulting one another on the matter so that they can help one another by sharing their ideas concerning issues such as wars and other matters.
This is like the Ayah:
وَشَاوِرۡهُمۡ فِى الاٌّمۡرِ
and consult them in the affairs, (3:159)
The Prophet used to consult with them concerning wars and other matters, so that they would feel confidant.
When Umar bin Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, was dying, after he had been stabbed, he entrusted the choice of the next Khalifah to six people who were to be consulted. They were Uthman, Ali, Talhah, Az-Zubayr, Sa`id and Abdur-Rahman bin Awf, may Allah be pleased with them all. Then all of the Companions, may Allah be pleased with them, agreed to appoint Uthman as their leader.
وَمِمَّا رَزَقۡنَاهُمۡ يُنفِقُونَ
and who spend of what We have bestowed on them.
this means kindly treating the creation of Allah, starting with those who are closest, then the next closest, and so on.
وَالَّذِينَ إِذَا أَصَابَهُمُ الۡبَغۡيُ هُمۡ يَنتَصِرُونَ
And those who, when an oppressive wrong is done to them, take revenge.
means, they have the strength to take revenge on those who commit aggressive wrong and hostile acts against them. They are not incapable of doing so and they are not helpless; they are able to take revenge against those who transgress against them, even though when they have the power to take revenge, they prefer to forgive, as when Yusuf, peace be upon him, said to his brothers:
لَا تَثۡرَيبَ عَلَيۡكُمُ الۡيَوۡمَ يَغۡفِرُ اللَّهُ لَكُمۡ
No reproach on you this day; may Allah forgive you. (12:92)
even though he was in a position to take revenge on them for what they had done to him.
The Messenger of Allah forgave the eighty people who intended to do him harm during the year of Al-Hudaybiyah, camping by the mountain of At-Tan`im. When he overpowered them, he set them free, even though he was in a position to take revenge on them.
He also forgave Ghawrath bin Al-Harith who wanted to kill him and unsheathed his sword while he was sleeping. The Prophet woke up to find him pointing the sword at him. He reproached him angrily and the sword dropped. Then the Messenger of Allah picked up the sword and called his Companions. He told them what had happened, and he forgave the man.
There are many similar Hadiths and reports. And Allah knows best.
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