Ayah

Word by Word
وَمَا
And not
كَانَ
is
لِمُؤۡمِنٍ
for a believer
أَن
that
يَقۡتُلَ
he kills
مُؤۡمِنًا
a believer
إِلَّا
except
خَطَـٔٗاۚ
(by) mistake
وَمَن
And whoever
قَتَلَ
killed
مُؤۡمِنًا
a believer
خَطَـٔٗا
(by) mistake
فَتَحۡرِيرُ
then freeing
رَقَبَةٖ
(of) a slave
مُّؤۡمِنَةٖ
believing
وَدِيَةٞ
and blood money
مُّسَلَّمَةٌ
(is to be) paid
إِلَىٰٓ
to
أَهۡلِهِۦٓ
his family
إِلَّآ
unless
أَن
that
يَصَّدَّقُواْۚ
they remit (as) charity
فَإِن
But if
كَانَ
(he) was
مِن
from
قَوۡمٍ
a people
عَدُوّٖ
hostile
لَّكُمۡ
to you
وَهُوَ
and he was
مُؤۡمِنٞ
a believer
فَتَحۡرِيرُ
then freeing
رَقَبَةٖ
(of) a believing slave
مُّؤۡمِنَةٖۖ
believing
وَإِن
And if
كَانَ
(he) was
مِن
from
قَوۡمِۭ
a people
بَيۡنَكُمۡ
between you
وَبَيۡنَهُم
and between them
مِّيثَٰقٞ
(is) a treaty
فَدِيَةٞ
then blood money
مُّسَلَّمَةٌ
(is to be) paid
إِلَىٰٓ
to
أَهۡلِهِۦ
his family
وَتَحۡرِيرُ
and freeing
رَقَبَةٖ
(of) a slave
مُّؤۡمِنَةٖۖ
believing
فَمَن
And whoever
لَّمۡ
(does) not
يَجِدۡ
find
فَصِيَامُ
then fasting
شَهۡرَيۡنِ
(for) two months
مُتَتَابِعَيۡنِ
consecutively
تَوۡبَةٗ
(seeking) repentance
مِّنَ
from
ٱللَّهِۗ
Allah
وَكَانَ
and is
ٱللَّهُ
Allah
عَلِيمًا
All-Knowing
حَكِيمٗا
All-Wise
وَمَا
And not
كَانَ
is
لِمُؤۡمِنٍ
for a believer
أَن
that
يَقۡتُلَ
he kills
مُؤۡمِنًا
a believer
إِلَّا
except
خَطَـٔٗاۚ
(by) mistake
وَمَن
And whoever
قَتَلَ
killed
مُؤۡمِنًا
a believer
خَطَـٔٗا
(by) mistake
فَتَحۡرِيرُ
then freeing
رَقَبَةٖ
(of) a slave
مُّؤۡمِنَةٖ
believing
وَدِيَةٞ
and blood money
مُّسَلَّمَةٌ
(is to be) paid
إِلَىٰٓ
to
أَهۡلِهِۦٓ
his family
إِلَّآ
unless
أَن
that
يَصَّدَّقُواْۚ
they remit (as) charity
فَإِن
But if
كَانَ
(he) was
مِن
from
قَوۡمٍ
a people
عَدُوّٖ
hostile
لَّكُمۡ
to you
وَهُوَ
and he was
مُؤۡمِنٞ
a believer
فَتَحۡرِيرُ
then freeing
رَقَبَةٖ
(of) a believing slave
مُّؤۡمِنَةٖۖ
believing
وَإِن
And if
كَانَ
(he) was
مِن
from
قَوۡمِۭ
a people
بَيۡنَكُمۡ
between you
وَبَيۡنَهُم
and between them
مِّيثَٰقٞ
(is) a treaty
فَدِيَةٞ
then blood money
مُّسَلَّمَةٌ
(is to be) paid
إِلَىٰٓ
to
أَهۡلِهِۦ
his family
وَتَحۡرِيرُ
and freeing
رَقَبَةٖ
(of) a slave
مُّؤۡمِنَةٖۖ
believing
فَمَن
And whoever
لَّمۡ
(does) not
يَجِدۡ
find
فَصِيَامُ
then fasting
شَهۡرَيۡنِ
(for) two months
مُتَتَابِعَيۡنِ
consecutively
تَوۡبَةٗ
(seeking) repentance
مِّنَ
from
ٱللَّهِۗ
Allah
وَكَانَ
and is
ٱللَّهُ
Allah
عَلِيمًا
All-Knowing
حَكِيمٗا
All-Wise

Translation

Never should a believer kill a believer; but (If it so happens) by mistake, (Compensation is due): If one (so) kills a believer, it is ordained that he should free a believing slave, and pay compensation to the deceased's family, unless they remit it freely. If the deceased belonged to a people at war with you, and he was a believer, the freeing of a believing slave (Is enough). If he belonged to a people with whom ye have treaty of Mutual alliance, compensation should be paid to his family, and a believing slave be freed. For those who find this beyond their means, (is prescribed) a fast for two months running: by way of repentance to Allah: for Allah hath all knowledge and all wisdom.

Tafsir

It is not for a believer to slay a believer, in other words, no such slaying should result at his hands, except by mistake, killing him by mistake, unintentionally. He who slays a believer by mistake, when he meant to strike some other thing, as in the case of hunting or [shooting at] trees, but then happens to strike him with what in most cases would not kill, then let him set free, let him emancipate, a believing slave (raqaba denotes nasama, 'a person'), an obligation on him, and blood-money is to be submitted, to be paid, to his family, that is, the slain person's inheritors, unless they remit it as a charity, to him by waiving [their claim to] it. In the Sunna this [blood-money] is explained as being equivalent to one hundred camels: twenty pregnant, twenty female sucklings, twenty male sucklings, twenty mature ones and twenty young ones [not more than five years old]; and [the Sunna stipulates] that it is incumbent upon the killer's clan, namely, his paternal relations [and not other relatives]. They share this [burden of the blood-money] over three years; the rich among them pays half a dinar, while the one of moderate means [pays] a quarter of a dinar each year; if they still cannot meet this, then it can be taken from the treasury, and if this is not possible, then from the killer himself. If he, the slain, belongs to a people at enmity, at war, with you and is a believer, then the setting free of a believing slave, is incumbent upon the slayer, as a redemption, but no bloodmoney is to be paid to his family, since they are at war [with you]. If he, the slain, belongs to a people between whom and you there is a covenant, a treaty, as is the case with the Protected People (ahl al-dhimma), then the blood-money, for him, must be paid to his family, and it constitutes a third of the blood-money for a believer, if the slain be a Jew or a Christian, and two thirds of a tenth of it, if he be a Magian; and the setting free of a believing slave, is incumbent upon the slayer. But if he has not the wherewithal, for [setting free] a slave, failing to find one, or the means to obtain one, then the fasting of two successive months, is incumbent upon him as a redemption: here God does not mention the transition to [an alternative to fasting which is] giving food [to the needy], as in the case of [repudiating one's wife by] zihaar, something which al- Shaafi'ee advocates in the more correct of two opinions of his; a relenting from God (tawbatan, 'relenting', is the verbal noun, and is in the accusative because of the implied verb). And God is ever Knowing, of His creation, Wise, in what He has ordained for them.

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