Ayah

Word by Word
يُوصِيكُمُ
Instructs you
ٱللَّهُ
Allah
فِيٓ
concerning
أَوۡلَٰدِكُمۡۖ
your children
لِلذَّكَرِ
for the male
مِثۡلُ
like
حَظِّ
(the) portion
ٱلۡأُنثَيَيۡنِۚ
(of) two females
فَإِن
But if
كُنَّ
there are
نِسَآءٗ
(only) women
فَوۡقَ
more (than)
ٱثۡنَتَيۡنِ
two
فَلَهُنَّ
then for them
ثُلُثَا
two thirds
مَا
(of) what
تَرَكَۖ
he left
وَإِن
And if
كَانَتۡ
(there) is
وَٰحِدَةٗ
(only) one
فَلَهَا
then for her
ٱلنِّصۡفُۚ
(is) half
وَلِأَبَوَيۡهِ
And for his parents
لِكُلِّ
for each
وَٰحِدٖ
one
مِّنۡهُمَا
of them
ٱلسُّدُسُ
a sixth
مِمَّا
of what
تَرَكَ
(is) left
إِن
if
كَانَ
is
لَهُۥ
for him
وَلَدٞۚ
a child
فَإِن
But if
لَّمۡ
not
يَكُن
is
لَّهُۥ
for him
وَلَدٞ
any child
وَوَرِثَهُۥٓ
and inherit[ed] him
أَبَوَاهُ
his parents
فَلِأُمِّهِ
then for his mother
ٱلثُّلُثُۚ
(is) one third
فَإِن
And if
كَانَ
are
لَهُۥٓ
for him
إِخۡوَةٞ
brothers and sisters
فَلِأُمِّهِ
then for his mother
ٱلسُّدُسُۚ
(is) the sixth
مِنۢ
from
بَعۡدِ
after
وَصِيَّةٖ
any will
يُوصِي
he has made
بِهَآ
[of which]
أَوۡ
or
دَيۡنٍۗ
any debt
ءَابَآؤُكُمۡ
Your parents
وَأَبۡنَآؤُكُمۡ
and your children
لَا
not
تَدۡرُونَ
you know
أَيُّهُمۡ
which of them
أَقۡرَبُ
(is) nearer
لَكُمۡ
to you
نَفۡعٗاۚ
(in) benefit
فَرِيضَةٗ
An obligation
مِّنَ
from
ٱللَّهِۗ
Allah
إِنَّ
Indeed
ٱللَّهَ
Allah
كَانَ
is
عَلِيمًا
All-Knowing
حَكِيمٗا
All-Wise
يُوصِيكُمُ
Instructs you
ٱللَّهُ
Allah
فِيٓ
concerning
أَوۡلَٰدِكُمۡۖ
your children
لِلذَّكَرِ
for the male
مِثۡلُ
like
حَظِّ
(the) portion
ٱلۡأُنثَيَيۡنِۚ
(of) two females
فَإِن
But if
كُنَّ
there are
نِسَآءٗ
(only) women
فَوۡقَ
more (than)
ٱثۡنَتَيۡنِ
two
فَلَهُنَّ
then for them
ثُلُثَا
two thirds
مَا
(of) what
تَرَكَۖ
he left
وَإِن
And if
كَانَتۡ
(there) is
وَٰحِدَةٗ
(only) one
فَلَهَا
then for her
ٱلنِّصۡفُۚ
(is) half
وَلِأَبَوَيۡهِ
And for his parents
لِكُلِّ
for each
وَٰحِدٖ
one
مِّنۡهُمَا
of them
ٱلسُّدُسُ
a sixth
مِمَّا
of what
تَرَكَ
(is) left
إِن
if
كَانَ
is
لَهُۥ
for him
وَلَدٞۚ
a child
فَإِن
But if
لَّمۡ
not
يَكُن
is
لَّهُۥ
for him
وَلَدٞ
any child
وَوَرِثَهُۥٓ
and inherit[ed] him
أَبَوَاهُ
his parents
فَلِأُمِّهِ
then for his mother
ٱلثُّلُثُۚ
(is) one third
فَإِن
And if
كَانَ
are
لَهُۥٓ
for him
إِخۡوَةٞ
brothers and sisters
فَلِأُمِّهِ
then for his mother
ٱلسُّدُسُۚ
(is) the sixth
مِنۢ
from
بَعۡدِ
after
وَصِيَّةٖ
any will
يُوصِي
he has made
بِهَآ
[of which]
أَوۡ
or
دَيۡنٍۗ
any debt
ءَابَآؤُكُمۡ
Your parents
وَأَبۡنَآؤُكُمۡ
and your children
لَا
not
تَدۡرُونَ
you know
أَيُّهُمۡ
which of them
أَقۡرَبُ
(is) nearer
لَكُمۡ
to you
نَفۡعٗاۚ
(in) benefit
فَرِيضَةٗ
An obligation
مِّنَ
from
ٱللَّهِۗ
Allah
إِنَّ
Indeed
ٱللَّهَ
Allah
كَانَ
is
عَلِيمًا
All-Knowing
حَكِيمٗا
All-Wise

Translation

Allah (thus) directs you as regards your Children's (Inheritance): to the male, a portion equal to that of two females: if only daughters, two or more, their share is two-thirds of the inheritance; if only one, her share is a half. For parents, a sixth share of the inheritance to each, if the deceased left children; if no children, and the parents are the (only) heirs, the mother has a third; if the deceased Left brothers (or sisters) the mother has a sixth. (The distribution in all cases ('s) after the payment of legacies and debts. Ye know not whether your parents or your children are nearest to you in benefit. These are settled portions ordained by Allah; and Allah is All-knowing, Al-wise.

Tafsir

God charges you, He commands you, concerning, the matter of, your children, with what He will mention: to the male, of them, the equivalent of the portion, the lot, of two females, if there are two [women] with him, so that half the property is his, and the other half is theirs; if there is only one female with him, then she has a third, and he receives two thirds; if he is the only one, he takes it all; and if they, the offspring, be, only, women more than two, then for them two-thirds of what he, the deceased, leaves; likewise if they be two women, since in the case of two sisters, more deserving of such a share, God says, They shall receive twothirds of what he leaves [Q. 4:176]; and since a female is entitled to a third with a male, she is all the more deserving [of the same share] with a female. It is said that fawq, 'more than', introduces a relative clause; it is also said to guard against the wrong impression that the greater the number [of females] the greater the portion [they are entitled to], since, it is [mistakenly] thought that the entitlement of two females to twothirds derives from the fact that a female is entitled to one third when with a male; but if she, the daughter, be one (waahidatan, is also read waahidatun, making the kaana [construction] syntactically complete) then to her a half; and to his parents, the deceased's, to each one of the two (li-kulli waahidin minhumaa, substitutes for the previous li-abawayhi, 'to his parents') the sixth of what he leaves, if he has a child, male or female: the point of the substitution is to show that they do not share the sixth [but receive one each]. [The term] 'child' (walad) also applies to a grandchild, and likewise 'parent' (abb) to a grandparent; but if he has no child, and his heirs are his parents, alone or along with a spouse, then to his mother (read li-ummihi; also read, in both places [here and further down], li-immihi in order to avoid the cumbersome transition from a damma ['u'] to a kasra ['I']) a third, of the property, or what remains after the spouse, the rest being for the father; or, if he has siblings, two or more, males or females, to his mother a sixth, and the rest for the father, and nothing for the siblings. The inheritance stipulated for those mentioned shall take place, after, the fulfilment of, any bequest that he may bequeath (read active yoosee, or passive yoosaa), or, the repayment of, any debt, that he may owe. 'Bequest' comes before 'debt', even though it should only be fulfilled after the latter [has been repayed], to show that it should be taken seriously. Your parents and children (aabaa'ukum wa-abnaa'ukum, is the subject, its predicate being [what follows]) - you know not which of them is nearer in benefit to you, in this world and the Hereafter. It may be that one supposes his son to be beneficial to him, leaves him an inheritance, and then it turns out that the father had been the more beneficial [of the two], and vice versa. The only One with knowledge of this [reality] is God, and for this reason He has prescribed for you inheritance: a prescription from God; surely God is ever Knowing, of His creation, Wise, in what He has ordained for them, that is to say, He is ever possessed of such attributes.

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