Word by Word
And seek forgiveness
And seek forgiveness
But seek the forgiveness of Allah; for Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.
And pray for forgiveness from God, for that which you considered doing; surely God is ever Forgiving, Merciful.
"The Necessity of Referring to What Allah has Revealed for Judgment
Allah says to His Messenger, Muhammad,
إِنَّا أَنزَلۡنَا إِلَيۡكَ الۡكِتَابَ بِالۡحَقِّ
Surely, We have sent down to you the Book in truth,
meaning, it truly came from Allah and its narrations and commandments are true.
Allah then said,
لِتَحۡكُمَ بَيۡنَ النَّاسِ بِمَا أَرَاكَ اللّهُ
that you might judge between men by that which Allah has shown you,
In the Two Sahihs, it is recorded that;
Zaynab bint Umm Salamah said that Umm Salamah said that the Messenger of Allah heard the noise of disputing people close to the door of his room, and he went out to them saying,
أَلَا إِنَّمَا أَنَا بَشَرٌ وَإِنَّمَا أَقۡضِي بِنَحۡوٍ مِمَّا أَسۡمَعُ وَلَعَلَّ أَحَدَكُمۡ أَنۡ يَكُونَ أَلۡحَنَ بِحُجَّتِهِ مِنۡ بَعۡضٍ فَأَقۡضِيَ لَهُ فَمَنۡ قَضَيۡتُ لَهُ بِحَقِّ مُسۡلِمٍ فَإِنَّمَا هِيَ قِطۡعَةٌ مِنۡ نَارٍ فَلۡيَحۡمِلۡهَا أَوۡ لِيَذَرۡهَا
Verily, I am only human and I judge based on what I hear. Some of you might be more eloquent in presenting his case than others, so that I judge in his favor. If I judge in one's favor concerning the right of another Muslim, then it is a piece of the Fire. So let one take it or leave it.
Imam Ahmad recorded that Umm Salamah said,
""Two men from the Ansar came to the Messenger of Allah with a dispute regarding some old inheritance, but they did not have evidence. The Messenger of Allah said,
إِنَّكُمۡ تَخۡتَصِمُونَ إِلَيَ وَإِنَّمَا أَنَا بَشَرٌ وَلَعَلَّ بَعۡضَكُمۡ أَلۡحَنُ بِحُجَّتِهِ مِنۡ بَعۡضٍ وَإِنَّما أَقۡضِي بَيۡنَكُمۡ عَلى نَحۡوٍ مِمَّا أَسۡمَعُ فَمَنۡ قَضَيۡتُ لَهُ مِنۡ حَقِّ أَخِيهِ شَيۡيًا فَلَ يَأۡخُذۡهُ فَإِنَّمَا أَقۡطَعُ لَهُ قِطۡعَةً مِنَ النَّارِ يَأۡتِي بِهَا إِسۡطَامًا فِي عُنُقِهِ يَوۡمَ الۡقِيَامَة
You bring your disputes to me, but I am only human. Some of you might be more persuasive in their arguments than others. I only judge between you according to what I hear. Therefore, whomever I judge in his favor and give him a part of his brother's right, let him not take it, for it is a part of the Fire that I am giving him and it will be tied around his neck on the Day of Resurrection.
The two men cried and each one of them said, `I forfeit my right to my brother.'
The Messenger of Allah said,
أَمَا إِذۡ قُلۡتُمَا فَاذۡهَبَا فَاۡقَتَسِمَا ثُمَّ تَوَخَّيَا الۡحَقَّ ثُمَّ اسۡتَهِمَا ثُم لِيُحۡلِلۡ كُلُّ وَاحِدٍ مِنۡكُمَا صَاحِبَه
Since you said that, then go and divide the inheritance, and try to be just in your division. Then draw lots, and each one of you should forgive his brother thereafter (regardless of who got the best share).""
وَلَا تَكُن لِّلۡخَأيِنِينَ خَصِيمًا
so be not a pleader for the treacherous.
وَاسۡتَغۡفِرِ اللّهِ إِنَّ اللّهَ كَانَ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا
And seek the forgiveness of Allah, certainly, Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
وَلَا تُجَادِلۡ عَنِ الَّذِينَ يَخۡتَانُونَ أَنفُسَهُمۡ إِنَّ اللّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ مَن كَانَ خَوَّانًا أَثِيمًا
And argue not on behalf of those who deceive themselves. Verily, Allah does not like anyone who is a betrayer, sinner.
يَسۡتَخۡفُونَ مِنَ النَّاسِ وَلَا يَسۡتَخۡفُونَ مِنَ اللّهِ
They may hide (their crimes) from men, but they cannot hide (them) from Allah;
chastises the hypocrites because they hide their evil works from the people so that they will not criticize them. Yet, the hypocrites disclose this evil with Allah, Who has perfect watch over their secrets and knows what is in their hearts.
This is why Allah said,
وَهُوَ مَعَهُمۡ إِذۡ يُبَيِّتُونَ مَا لَا يَرۡضَى مِنَ الۡقَوۡلِ وَكَانَ اللّهُ بِمَا يَعۡمَلُونَ مُحِيطًا
for He is with them (by His knowledge), when they plot by night in words that He does not approve. And Allah ever encompasses what they do.
threatening and warning them.
Allah then said
هَاأَنتُمۡ هَـوُلاء جَادَلۡتُمۡ عَنۡهُمۡ فِي الۡحَيَاةِ الدُّنۡيَا
Lo! You are those who have argued for them in the life of this world,
meaning, suppose these people gain the verdict from the rulers in their favor in this life, since the rulers judge according to what is apparent to them.
فَمَن يُجَادِلُ اللّهَ عَنۡهُمۡ يَوۡمَ الۡقِيَامَةِ
but who will argue for them on the Day of Resurrection against Allah,
However, what will their condition be on the Day of Resurrection before Allah, Who knows the secret and what is even more hidden Who will be his advocate on that Day Verily, none will support them that Day.
Hence, Allah's statement,
أَم مَّن يَكُونُ عَلَيۡهِمۡ وَكِيلً
or who will then be their defender!
The Encouragement to Seek Allah's Forgiveness, and Warning those who Falsely Accuse Innocent People
Allah emphasizes His generosity and kindness, in that He forgives whoever repents to Him from whatever evil they commit.
وَمَن يَعۡمَلۡ سُوءًا أَوۡ يَظۡلِمۡ نَفۡسَهُ ثُمَّ يَسۡتَغۡفِرِ اللّهَ يَجِدِ اللّهَ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا
And whoever does evil or wrongs himself but afterwards seeks Allah's forgiveness, he will find Allah Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
Ali bin Abi Talhah said that Ibn Abbas commented about this Ayah,
""Allah informs His servants of His forgiveness, forbearing generosity and expansive mercy. So whoever commits a sin, whether minor or major,
ثُمَّ يَسۡتَغۡفِرِ اللّهَ يَجِدِ اللّهَ غَفُورًا رَّحِيمًا
(but afterwards seeks Allah's forgiveness, he will find Allah Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful), even if his sins were greater than the heavens, the earth and the mountains.""
Imam Ahmad recorded that Ali said,
""Whenever I hear anything from the Messenger of Allah, Allah benefits me with whatever He wills of that. Abu Bakr told me, and Abu Bakr has said the truth, that the Messenger of Allah said,
مَا مِنۡ مُسۡلِمٍ يُذۡنِبُ ذَنۡبًا ثُمَّ يَتَوَضَّأُ فَيُصَلِّي رَكۡعَتَيۡنِ ثُمَّ يَسۡتَغۡفِرُ اللهَ لِذلِكَ الذَّنۡبِ إِلاَّ غَفَرَ لَه
No Muslim commits a sin and then performs ablution, prays two Rak`ahs and begs Allah for forgiveness for that sin, but He forgives him.
He then recited these two Ayat,
وَمَن يَعۡمَلۡ سُوءًا أَوۡ يَظۡلِمۡ نَفۡسَهُ
(And whoever does evil or wrongs himself), (4:110) and,
وَالَّذِينَ إِذَا فَعَلُواۡ فَاحِشَةً أَوۡ ظَلَمُواۡ أَنۡفُسَهُمۡ
(And those who, when they have committed Fahishah or wronged themselves with evil)."" (3:135)
وَمَن يَكۡسِبۡ إِثۡمًا فَإِنَّمَا يَكۡسِبُهُ عَلَى نَفۡسِهِ
And whoever earns sin, he earns it only against himself.
is similar to His statement,
وَلَا تَزِرُ وَازِرَةٌ وِزۡرَ أُخۡرَى
And no bearer of burdens shall bear the burden of another. (35:18)
So no one will avail anyone else. Rather, every soul, and none else, shall carry its own burden.
This is why Allah said,
وَكَانَ اللّهُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا
And Allah is Ever All-Knowing, All-Wise.
meaning, this occurs due to His knowledge, wisdom, fairness and mercy.
وَمَن يَكۡسِبۡ خَطِييَةً أَوۡ إِثۡمًا ثُمَّ يَرۡمِ بِهِ بَرِييًا فَقَدِ احۡتَمَلَ بُهۡتَانًا وَإِثۡمًا مُّبِينًا
And whoever earns a fault or a sin and then blames it on someone innocent, he has indeed burdened himself with falsehood and a manifest sin.
وَلَوۡلَا فَضۡلُ اللّهِ عَلَيۡكَ وَرَحۡمَتُهُ لَهَمَّت طَّأيِفَةٌ مُّنۡهُمۡ أَن يُضِلُّوكَ وَمَا يُضِلُّونَ إِلاُّ أَنفُسَهُمۡ وَمَا يَضُرُّونَكَ مِن شَيۡءٍ وَأَنزَلَ اللّهُ عَلَيۡكَ الۡكِتَابَ وَالۡحِكۡمَةَ
Had not the grace of Allah and His mercy been upon you, a party of them would certainly have made a decision to mislead you, but they mislead none except their own selves, and no harm can they do to you in the least. Allah has sent down to you the Book, and the Hikmah,
وَعَلَّمَكَ مَا لَمۡ تَكُنۡ تَعۡلَمُ
and taught you that which you knew not,
before this revelation was sent down to you.
Similarly, Allah said,
وَكَذَلِكَ أَوۡحَيۡنَأ إِلَيۡكَ رُوحاً مِّنۡ أَمۡرِنَا مَا كُنتَ تَدۡرِى مَا الۡكِتَـبُ
And thus We have sent to you (O Muhammad) a Ruh (a revelation, and a mercy) of Our command. You knew not what is the Book) until the end of the Surah. (42:52-53)
وَمَا كُنتَ تَرۡجُو أَن يُلۡقَى إِلَيۡكَ الۡكِتَـبُ إِلاَّ رَحۡمَةً مِّن رَّبِّكَ
And you were not expecting that the Book (this Qur'an) would be sent down to you, but it is a mercy from your Lord. (28:86)
So Allah said;
وَكَانَ فَضۡلُ اللّهِ عَلَيۡكَ عَظِيمًا
And ever great is the grace of Allah unto you (O Muhammad)."
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