Ayah

Word by Word
وَٱلۡقَمَرَ
And the moon
قَدَّرۡنَٰهُ
We have ordained for it
مَنَازِلَ
phases
حَتَّىٰ
until
عَادَ
it returns
كَٱلۡعُرۡجُونِ
like the date stalk
ٱلۡقَدِيمِ
the old
وَٱلۡقَمَرَ
And the moon
قَدَّرۡنَٰهُ
We have ordained for it
مَنَازِلَ
phases
حَتَّىٰ
until
عَادَ
it returns
كَٱلۡعُرۡجُونِ
like the date stalk
ٱلۡقَدِيمِ
the old

Translation

And the Moon,- We have measured for her mansions (to traverse) till she returns like the old (and withered) lower part of a date-stalk.

Tafsir

And the moon - (read wa'l-qamaru, in the nominative, or wa'l-qamara, in the accusative; and it may be in the accusative because of a following verb that governs it) We have determined it, with respect to its course, [to run] in phases - twenty eight phases in twenty eight nights of every month; it becomes concealed for two nights when the month has thirty days, and for one night when it has twenty nine days - until it returns, during its final phase seeming to the [human] eye, like an aged palm-bough, in other words, like the stalk with a date cluster when it ages, becoming delicate, arched and yellowish.

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