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(of) those who
(of) those who
In the long run evil in the extreme will be the End of those who do evil; for that they rejected the Signs of Allah, and held them up to ridicule.
Then the consequence for those who committed evil was evil (al-soo'aa is the feminine form of al-aswa', 'the worst'; [it may be read as] the predicate of kaana if one reads 'aaqibatu, in the nominative; or it is the subject of kaana if read as 'aaqibata, in the accusative; and so what is meant is Hell [in the former reading], or [according to the latter reading] simply their evil actions) because they denied the signs of God, Al-Qur'an, and made a mock of them.
Signs of Tawhid
Allah tells us that pondering His creation will show that He exists and that He is Unique in creating it, and that there is no god nor lord besides Him.
So He says:
أَوَلَمۡ يَتَفَكَّرُوا فِي أَنفُسِهِمۡ
Do they not reflect upon themselves!
Thinking and pondering how Allah created various things in the upper and lower realms and in the space between, realizing that this was not created in jest or in vain, but in truth, and that it will continue until an appointed time, the Day of Resurrection, as Allah says:
مَا خَلَقَ اللَّهُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالاۡاَرۡضَ وَمَا بَيۡنَهُمَا إِلاَّ بِالۡحَقِّ وَأَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى
Not but for just ends and for a term appointed, did Allah create the heavens and the earth, and all between them:
وَإِنَّ كَثِيرًا مِّنَ النَّاسِ بِلِقَاء رَبِّهِمۡ لَكَافِرُونَ
And indeed many of mankind deny meeting with their Lord.
Then Allah tells us of the truth of the Message brought by the Messengers and how He supported them with miracles and clear signs, such as when He destroyed those who disbelieved in them and saved those who believed in them
أَوَلَمۡ يَسِيرُوا فِي الاَۡرۡضِ
Do they not travel in the land,
means, `do they not understand and think and see and hear about the people of the past,'
فَيَنظُرُوا كَيۡفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبۡلِهِمۡ كَانُوا أَشَدَّ مِنۡهُمۡ قُوَّةً
and see what was the end of those before them! They were superior to them in strength,
meaning, `the nations of the past who came before you were stronger than you to whom Muhammad has been sent; they had more wealth and more sons. You have not been given one-tenth of what they were given. They stayed longer in this world than you will stay. They were more civilized than you and were more prosperous in the land than you.' Yet despite all that, when their Messengers came to them with clear signs, while they were enjoying their life of luxury, Allah punished them for their sins and they had no one who could protect them from Allah. Their wealth and sons could not protect them from the wrath of Allah in the slightest, and Allah was not at all unjust towards them when He sent His punishment upon them. It is as Allah says:
وَأَثَارُوا الاۡأَرۡضَ وَعَمَرُوهَا أَكۡثَرَ مِمَّا عَمَرُوهَا
وَجَاءتۡهُمۡ رُسُلُهُم بِالۡبَيِّنَاتِ فَمَا كَانَ اللَّهُ لِيَظۡلِمَهُمۡ
they tilled the soil and populated it in greater numbers than these have done:there came to them their apostles with Clear (Signs):it was not Allah Who wronged them,
وَلَكِن كَانُوا أَنفُسَهُمۡ يَظۡلِمُونَ
but they used to wrong themselves.
They brought destruction upon themselves, when they rejected and mocked the signs of Allah. All of this only happened because of their previous sins and their rejection (of the Messengers).
ثُمَّ كَانَ عَاقِبَةَ الَّذِينَ أَسَاوُوا السُّوأَى أَن كَذَّبُوا بِأيَاتِ اللَّهِ وَكَانُوا بِهَا يَسۡتَهۡزِوُون
Then evil was the end of those who did evil, because they denied the Ayat of Allah and made a mockery of them.
This is like the Ayat:
وَنُقَلِّبُ أَفۡيِدَتَهُمۡ وَأَبۡصَـرَهُمۡ كَمَا لَمۡ يُوۡمِنُواۡ بِهِ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ وَنَذَرُهُمۡ فِى طُغۡيَانِهِمۡ يَعۡمَهُونَ
And We shall turn their hearts and their eyes away, as they refused to believe therein for the first time, and We shall leave them in their trespass to wander blindly. (6:110)
فَلَمَّا زَاغُواۡ أَزَاغَ اللَّهُ قُلُوبَهُمۡ
So when they turned away, Allah turned their hearts away. (61:5)
فَإِن تَوَلَّوۡاۡ فَاعۡلَمۡ أَنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ أَن يُصِيبَهُم بِبَعۡضِ ذُنُوبِهِمۡ
And if they turn away, then know that Allah's will is to punish them for some sins of theirs. (5:49)
It was said that the meaning of the phrase
ثُمَّ كَانَ عَاقِبَةَ الَّذِينَ أَسَاوُوا السُّوأَى
(Then evil was the end of those who did evil), is that;
evil was their inevitable end, because they rejected the signs of Allah and made fun of them.
This is the view of Ibn Jarir, which he recorded from Ibn Abbas and Qatadah.
Ibn Abi Hatim also recorded it from them and from Ad-Dahhak bin Muzahim.
This is the apparent meaning -- and Allah knows best -- of the phrase:
وَكَانُوا بِهَا يَسۡتَهۡزِوُون
(and made a mockery of them).
اللَّهُ يَبۡدَأُ الۡخَلۡقَ ثُمَّ يُعِيدُهُ
Allah originates the creation, then He will repeat it,
Just as He was able to create it in the first place, so He is also able to repeat it.
ثُمَّ إِلَيۡهِ تُرۡجَعُونَ
then to Him you will be returned.
on the Day of Resurrection, when each will be requited according to his deeds.
Then Allah says:
وَيَوۡمَ تَقُومُ السَّاعَةُ يُبۡلِسُ الۡمُجۡرِمُونَ
And on the Day when the Hour will be established, the criminals will be plunged into destruction with despair.
Ibn Abbas said,
The sinners will be filled with despair.
The sinners will be exposed;
according to another report he said,
The sinners will grieve.
وَلَمۡ يَكُن لَّهُم مِّن شُرَكَايِهِمۡ شُفَعَاء
No intercessors will they have from those whom they made equal with Allah,
means, the gods whom they used to worship instead of Allah will not intercede for them;
وَكَانُوا بِشُرَكَايِهِمۡ كَافِرِينَ
and they will reject and deny their partners.
they will reject them and betray them despite their desperate need of them.
Then Allah says:
وَيَوۡمَ تَقُومُ السَّاعَةُ يَوۡمَيِذٍ يَتَفَرَّقُونَ
And on the Day when the Hour will be established -- that Day shall (all men) be separated.
By Allah, this refers to the separation after which there will be no reunion.
In other words, if one person is taken up to the highest heights and another is sent down to the lowest depths of Hell, that is the last they will ever see of one another.
فَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ امَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ فَهُمۡ فِي رَوۡضَةٍ يُحۡبَرُونَ
Then as for those who believed and did righteous good deeds, such shall be honored and made to enjoy a luxurious life in a Garden of Delight.
Mujahid and Qatadah said,
This means, they will enjoy a life of luxury.
Allah says about the disbelievers:
وَأَمَّا الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَكَذَّبُوا بِأيَاتِنَا وَلِقَاء الاۡأخِرَةِ فَأُوۡلَيِكَ فِي الۡعَذَابِ مُحۡضَرُونَ
And as for those who disbelieved and denied Our Ayat, and the meeting of the Hereafter, such shall be brought forth to the torment.
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