Word by Word
And verily thy Lord knoweth all that their hearts do hide. As well as all that they reveal.
And surely your Lord knows what their hearts conceal, [what these] hide, and what they proclaim, by their tongues.
Scepticism about the Resurrection and Its Refutation
وَقَالَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَيِذَا كُنَّا تُرَابًا وَابَاوُنَا أَيِنَّا لَمُخۡرَجُونَ
And those who disbelieve say:When we have become dust -- we and our fathers -- shall we really be brought forth!
Allah tells us about the idolators who deny the Resurrection, considering it extremely unlikely that bodies will be re-created after they have become bones and dust.
Then He says:
لَقَدۡ وُعِدۡنَا هَذَا نَحۡنُ وَابَاوُنَا مِن قَبۡلُ
Indeed we were promised this -- we and our forefathers before,
meaning, `we and our forefathers have been hearing this for a long time, but in reality, we have never seen it happen.'
إِنۡ هَذَا إِلاَّ أَسَاطِيرُ الاَۡوَّلِينَ
verily, these are nothing but tales of ancients.
the promises that bodies will be restored are
إِلاَّ أَسَاطِيرُ الاَۡوَّلِينَ
(nothing but tales of ancients),
meaning that they were taken by the people who came before us from books which were handed down from one to the other, but they have no basis in reality.
Responding to their thoughts of disbelief and their belief that there would be no Resurrection, Allah said
Say (`O Muhammad, to these people,')
سِيرُوا فِي الاَۡرۡضِ فَانظُرُوا كَيۡفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الۡمُجۡرِمِينَ
Travel in the land and see how has been the end of the criminals.
meaning, those who denied the Messengers and their message of the Resurrection and other matters. See how the punishment and vengeance of Allah struck them and how Allah saved from among them the noble Messengers and the believers who followed them.
This will be an indication of the truth of the Message brought by the Messengers.
Then, to comfort the Prophet, Allah says:
وَلَا تَحۡزَنۡ عَلَيۡهِمۡ
And grieve you not over them,
meaning, `but do not feel sorry for them or kill yourself with regret for them,'
وَلَا تَكُن فِي ضَيۡقٍ مِّمَّا يَمۡكُرُونَ
nor be straitened because of what they plot.
means, `because they plot against you and reject what you have brought, for Allah will help and support you, and cause your religion to prevail over those who oppose you and stubbornly resist you in the east and in the west.
Allah tells us about how the idolators asked about the Day of Resurrection, but thought it unlikely that it would ever come to pass.
وَيَقُولُونَ مَتَى هَذَا الۡوَعۡدُ إِن كُنتُمۡ صَادِقِينَ
And they say:When (will) this promise (be fulfilled), if you are truthful!
Allah said, responding to them
Say, (`O Muhammad,')
عَسَى أَن يَكُونَ رَدِفَ لَكُم بَعۡضُ الَّذِي تَسۡتَعۡجِلُونَ
Perhaps that which you wish to hasten on, may be close behind you.
Ibn Abbas said,
That which you wish to hasten on has come close to you, or some of it has come close.
This was also the view of Mujahid, Ad-Dahhak, Ata Al-Khurasani, Qatadah and As-Suddi.
This is also what is meant in the Ayat:
وَيَقُولُونَ مَتَى هُوَ قُلۡ عَسَى أَن يَكُونَ قَرِيبًا
And they say:When will that be! Say:Perhaps it is near! (17:51)
يَسۡتَعۡجِلُونَكَ بِالۡعَذَابِ وَإِنَّ جَهَنَّمَ لَمُحِيطَةٌ بِالۡكَـفِرِينَ
They ask you to hasten on the torment. And verily, Hell, of a surety, will encompass the disbelievers. (29:54)
عَسَى أَن يَكُونَ رَدِفَ لَكُم
may be close behind you.
means, it is being hastened for you.
This was reported from Mujahid.
Then Allah says
وَإِنَّ رَبَّكَ لَذُو فَضۡلٍ عَلَى النَّاسِ
Verily, your Lord is full of grace for mankind,
meaning, He abundantly bestows His blessings on them even though they wrong themselves, yet despite that they do not give thanks for those blessings, except for a few of them.
وَلَكِنَّ أَكۡثَرَهُمۡ لَا يَشۡكُرُونَ
yet most of them do not give thanks.
وَإِنَّ رَبَّكَ لَيَعۡلَمُ مَا تُكِنُّ صُدُورُهُمۡ وَمَا يُعۡلِنُون
And verily, your Lord knows what their breasts conceal and what they reveal.
means, He knows what is hidden in their hearts just as He knows what is easily visible.
سَوَاءٌ مِّنۡكُمۡ مَّنۡ أَسَرَّ الۡقَوۡلَ وَمَنۡ جَهَرَ بِهِ
It is the same (to Him) whether any of you conceals his speech or declares it openly. (13:10)
يَعۡلَمُ السِّرَّ وَأَخۡفَى
He knows the secret and that which is yet more hidden. (20:7)
أَلا حِينَ يَسۡتَغۡشُونَ ثِيَابَهُمۡ يَعۡلَمُ مَا يُسِرُّونَ وَمَا يُعۡلِنُونَ
Surely, even when they cover themselves with their garments, He knows what they conceal and what they reveal. (11:5)
Then Allah tells us that He is the Knower of the unseen in the heavens and on earth, and that He is the Knower of the unseen and the seen, i.e., that which is unseen by His servants and that which they can see.
And Allah says
وَمَا مِنۡ غَايِبَةٍ
and there is nothing hidden,
Ibn Abbas said,
This means, there is nothing
فِي السَّمَاء وَالاَۡرۡضِ إِلاَّ فِي كِتَابٍ مُّبِينٍ
in the heaven and the earth but it is in a Clear Book.
This is like the Ayah,
أَلَمۡ تَعۡلَمۡ أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَعۡلَمُ مَا فِى السَّمَأءِ وَالاٌّرۡضِ إِنَّ ذلِكَ فِى كِتَـبٍ إِنَّ ذلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيرٌ
Know you not that Allah knows all that is in the heaven and on the earth! Verily, it is (all) in the Book. Verily, that is easy for Allah. (22:70
The Qur'an tells the Story of the Differences among the Children of Israel, and Allah judges between Them
إِنَّ هَذَا الۡقُرۡانَ يَقُصُّ عَلَى بَنِي إِسۡرَايِيلَ
Verily, this Qur'an narrates to the Children of Israel,
Allah tells us about His Book and the guidance, proof and criterion between right and wrong that it contains.
He tells us about the Children of Israel, who were the bearers of the Tawrah and Injil.
أَكۡثَرَ الَّذِي هُمۡ فِيهِ يَخۡتَلِفُونَ
most of that in which they differ.
such as their different opinions about `Isa. The Jews lied about him while the Christians exaggerated in praise for him, so the Qur'an came with the moderate word of truth and justice:that he was one of the servants of Allah, and one of His noble Prophets and Messengers, may the best of peace and blessings be upon him, as the Qur'an says:
ذلِكَ عِيسَى ابۡنُ مَرۡيَمَ قَوۡلَ الۡحَقِّ الَّذِى فِيهِ يَمۡتُرُونَ
Such is `Isa, son of Maryam. (It is) a statement of truth, about which they doubt. (19:34)
وَإِنَّهُ لَهُدًى وَرَحۡمَةٌ لِّلۡمُوۡمِنِينَ
And truly, it is a guide and a mercy for the believers.
meaning, it is guidance for the hearts of those who believe in it, and a mercy to them.
Then Allah says
إِنَّ رَبَّكَ يَقۡضِي بَيۡنَهُم
Verily, your Lord will decide between them,
meaning, on the Day of Resurrection,
بِحُكۡمِهِ وَهُوَ الۡعَزِيزُ
by His judgement. And He is the All-Mighty,
means, in His vengeance,
Who knows all that His servants do and say.
The Command to put One's Trust in Allah and to convey the Message
فَتَوَكَّلۡ عَلَى اللَّهِ
So, put your trust in Allah;
in all your affairs, and convey the Message of your Lord.
إِنَّكَ عَلَى الۡحَقِّ الۡمُبِينِ
surely, you are on manifest truth.
meaning, you are following manifest truth, even though you are opposed by those who oppose you because they are doomed. The Word of your Lord has been justified against them, so that they will not believe even if all the signs are brought to them.
إِنَّكَ لَا تُسۡمِعُ الۡمَوۡتَى
Verily, you cannot make the dead to hear,
meaning, you cannot cause them to hear anything that will benefit them. The same applies to those over whose hearts is a veil and in whose ears is deafness of disbelief.
وَلَا تُسۡمِعُ الصُّمَّ الدُّعَاء إِذَا وَلَّوۡا مُدۡبِرِينَ
وَمَا أَنتَ بِهَادِي الۡعُمۡيِ عَن ضَلَلَتِهِمۡ إِن تُسۡمِعُ إِلاَّ مَن يُوۡمِنُ بِأيَاتِنَا فَهُم مُّسۡلِمُونَ
nor can you make the deaf to hear the call, when they flee, turning their backs. Nor can you lead the blind out of their error. You can only make to hear those who believe in Our Ayat, so they submit (became Muslims).
meaning, those who have hearing and insight will respond to you, those whose hearing and sight are of benefit to their hearts and who are humble towards Allah and to the Message that comes to them through the mouths of the Messengers, may peace be upon them.
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