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Yet there is among men such a one as disputes about Allah, without Knowledge, without Guidance, and without a Book of Enlightenment,-
The following was revealed regarding Aboo Jahl: And among mankind there are some who dispute about God without [any] knowledge or guidance, [being] with him, or an enlightening Scripture, one containing light, [being] with him,
Evidence of the Resurrection in the creation of Man and of Plants
When Allah speaks of disbelief in the Resurrection, He also mentions the evidence of His power and ability to resurrect that is evident from the way He initiates creation.
يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِن كُنتُمۡ فِي رَيۡبٍ مِّنَ الۡبَعۡثِ
If you are in doubt about the Resurrection,
which means the time when souls and bodies will be raised up on the Day of Resurrection,
فَإِنَّا خَلَقۡنَاكُم مِّن تُرَابٍ
then verily, We have created you from dust,
meaning, `you were originally created from dust', which is what Adam, peace be upon him, was created from.
ثُمَّ مِن نُّطۡفَةٍ
then from a Nutfah,
ثُمَّ جَعَلَ نَسۡلَهُ مِن سُلَلَةٍ مِّن مَّاء مَّهِينٍ
then He made his offspring from semen of despised water. (32:8)
The Development of the Nutfah and Embryo in the Womb
ثُمَّ مِنۡ عَلَقَةٍ ثُمَّ مِن مُّضۡغَةٍ
then from a clot then from a little lump of flesh,
if the Nutfah establishes itself in the woman's womb, it stays like that for forty days, then more material is added to it and it changes into a red clot, by the leave of Allah, and it remains like that for forty days.
Then it changes and becomes a lump of flesh, like a piece of meat with no form or shape. Then it starts to take on a form and shape, developing a head, arms, chest, stomach, thighs, legs, feet and all its members.
Sometimes a woman miscarries before the fetus is formed and sometimes she miscarries after it has formed. As Allah says:
ثُمَّ مِن مُّضۡغَةٍ
مُّخَلَّقَةٍ وَغَيۡرِ مُخَلَّقَةٍ
then from a little lump of flesh -- some formed and some unformed,
meaning, as you see.
لِّنُبَيِّنَ لَكُمۡ وَنُقِرُّ فِي الاَۡرۡحَامِ مَا نَشَاء إِلَى أَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى
that We may make (it) clear to you. And We cause whom We will to remain in the wombs for an appointed term,
meaning that sometimes the fetus remains in the womb and is not miscarried.
Mujahid said about the ayah,
مُّخَلَّقَةٍ وَغَيۡرِ مُخَلَّقَةٍ
(some formed and some unformed),
This means the miscarried fetus, formed or unformed. When forty days have passed of it being a lump of flesh, then Allah sends an angel to it who breathes the soul into it and forms it as Allah wills, handsome or ugly, male or female. He then writes its provision, its allotted length of life and whether it is to be one of the blessed or the wretched.
It was recorded in the Two Sahihs that Ibn Mas`ud said,
The Messenger of Allah, who is the true and truly inspired one, told us:
إِنَّ خَلۡقَ أَحَدِكُمۡ يُجۡمَعُ فِي بَطۡنِ أُمِّهِ أَرۡبَعِينَ لَيۡلَةً ثُمَّ يَكُونُ عَلَقَةً مِثۡلَ ذَلِكَ ثُمَّ يَكُونُ مُضۡغَةً مِثۡلَ ذَلِكَ ثُمَّ يَبۡعَثُ اللهُ إِلَيۡهِ الۡمَلَكَ فَيُوۡمَرُ بِأَرۡبَعِ كَلِمَاتٍ بِكَتۡبِ رِزۡقِهِ وَعَمَلِهِ وَأَجَلِهِ وَشَقِيٌّ أَوۡ سَعِيدٌ ثُمَّ يُنۡفَخُ فِيهِ الرُّوح
Every one of you is collected in the womb of his mother for the first forty days, and then he becomes a clot for another forty days, and then a lump of flesh for another forty days. Then Allah sends an angel to write four words:He writes his provision, his deeds, his life span, and whether he will be blessed or wretched. Then he blows the soul into him.
Man's Development from Infancy to Old Age
ثُمَّ نُخۡرِجُكُمۡ طِفۡلً
then We bring you out as infants,
means, weak in his body, hearing, sight, senses, stamina and mind.
Then Allah gives him strength, gradually and causes his parents to treat him with tender kindness night and day.
ثُمَّ لِتَبۡلُغُوا أَشُدَّكُمۡ
then (give you growth) that you may reach your age of full strength.
meaning, his strength increases until he reaches the vitality and handsomeness of youth.
وَمِنكُم مَّن يُتَوَفَّى
And among you there is he who dies,
means, when he is young and strong.
وَمِنكُم مَّن يُرَدُّ إِلَى أَرۡذَلِ الۡعُمُرِ
and among you there is he who is brought back to the miserable old age,
meaning advanced old age with its weakness in mind and body, in steady decline in comprehension, and disability to grasp.
As Allah says:
لِكَيۡلَ يَعۡلَمَ مِن بَعۡدِ عِلۡمٍ شَيۡيًا
so that he knows nothing after having known.
اللَّهُ الَّذِى خَلَقَكُمۡ مِّن ضَعۡفٍ ثُمَّ جَعَلَ مِن بَعۡدِ ضَعۡفٍ قُوَّةٍ ثُمَّ جَعَلَ مِن بَعۡدِ قُوَّةٍ ضَعۡفاً وَشَيۡبَةً يَخۡلُقُ مَا يَشَأءُ وَهُوَ الۡعَلِيمُ الۡقَدِيرُ
Allah is He Who created you in (a state of) weakness, then gave you strength after weakness, then after strength gave (you) weakness and grey hair. He creates what He wills. And it is He Who is the All-Knowing, the All-Powerful. (30:54)
Another Parable of the Resurrection from Plants
وَتَرَى الاَۡرۡضَ هَامِدَةً
And you see the earth Hamidatan,
This is another sign of the power of Allah to bring the dead back to life, just as He brings the dead, barren earth back to life, the lifeless earth in which nothing grows.
This means, the eroded, dusty earth.
فَإِذَا أَنزَلۡنَا عَلَيۡهَا الۡمَاء اهۡتَزَّتۡ وَرَبَتۡ وَأَنبَتَتۡ مِن كُلِّ زَوۡجٍ بَهِيجٍ
but when We send down water on it, it is stirred (to life), and it swells and puts forth every lovely kind (of growth).
When Allah sends the rain upon it, it is stirred to life, that is, vegetation begins to grow and it comes alive after it was dead. Then it rises after the soil had settled, then it puts forth its different kinds of fruit and crops with all their varied colours, tastes, fragrances, shapes and benefits.
وَأَنبَتَتۡ مِن كُلِّ زَوۡجٍ بَهِيجٍ
and puts forth every lovely kind (of growth).
meaning, beautiful in appearance and with delightful fragrances
ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الۡحَقُّ
That is because Allah:He is the Truth,
means, the Creator, the Controller, the One Who does as He wills.
وَأَنَّهُ يُحۡيِي الۡمَوۡتَى
and it is He Who gives life to the dead,
means, just as He gives life to the dead earth and brings forth from it all these kinds of vegetation.
إِنَّ الَّذِى أَحۡيَـهَا لَمُحۡىِ الۡمَوۡتَى إِنَّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَىۡءٍ قَدِيرٌ
Verily, He Who gives it life, surely is able to give life to the dead. Indeed He is able to do all things. (41:39)
إِنَّمَأ أَمۡرُهُ إِذَا أَرَادَ شَيۡياً أَن يَقُولَ لَهُ كُن فَيَكُونُ
Verily, His command, when He intends a thing, is only that He says to it, Be! -- and it is! (36:82)
وَأَنَّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيۡءٍ قَدِيرٌ
and it is He Who is able to do all things.
وَأَنَّ السَّاعَةَ اتِيَةٌ لاَّ رَيۡبَ فِيهَا
And surely, the Hour is coming, there is no doubt about it;
meaning, it will inevitably come to pass.
وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ يَبۡعَثُ مَن فِي الۡقُبُورِ
and certainly, Allah will resurrect those who are in the graves.
means, He will bring them back to life after they have become dust; He will create them anew after they have become nothing.
وَضَرَبَ لَنَا مَثَلً وَنَسِىَ خَلۡقَهُ قَالَ مَن يُحىِ الۡعِظَـمَ وَهِىَ رَمِيمٌ
قُلۡ يُحۡيِيهَا الَّذِى أَنشَأَهَأ أَوَّلَ مَرَّةٍ وَهُوَ بِكُلِّ خَلۡقٍ عَلِيمٌ
الَّذِى جَعَلَ لَكُم مِّنَ الشَّجَرِ الاٌّخۡضَرِ نَاراً فَإِذَا أَنتُم مِّنۡه تُوقِدُونَ
And he puts forth for Us a parable, and forgets his own creation. He says:Who will give life to these bones after they are rotten and have become dust!
Say:He will give life to them Who created them for the first time! And He is the All-Knower of every creation!
He Who produces for you fire out of the green tree, when behold you kindle there- with. (36:78-80)
And there are many similar Ayat
Clarifying the State of the Leaders of the Innovators and Those Who lead People astray
Allah has already told us about the ignorant imitators who are led astray:
وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يُجَادِلُ فِي اللَّهِ بِغَيۡرِ عِلۡمٍ وَيَتَّبِعُ كُلَّ شَيۡطَانٍ مَّرِيدٍ
And among mankind is he who disputes about Allah, without knowledge, and follows every rebellious Shaytan. (22:3)
And here He tells us about those who call others to misguidance, the leaders of disbelief and innovation:
وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يُجَادِلُ فِي اللَّهِ بِغَيۡرِ عِلۡمٍ وَلَا هُدًى وَلَا كِتَابٍ مُّنِيرٍ
And among men is he who disputes about Allah, without knowledge or guidance, or a Book giving light (from Allah).
meaning, with no correct rational thought, and no clear transmitted text; what they say is based only on their opinions and whims.
Bending his neck in pride,
Ibn Abbas and others said,
Too proud to follow the truth when he is called to it.
Mujahid, Qatadah and Malik said, narrating from Zayd bin Aslam:
(Bending his neck in pride),
means, twisting his neck, i.e., turning away from the truth to which he is called, bending his neck out of pride and arrogance.
This is like the Ayat:
وَفِى مُوسَى إِذۡ أَرۡسَلۡنَـهُ إِلَى فِرۡعَوۡنَ بِسُلۡطَـنٍ مُّبِينٍ فَتَوَلَّى بِرُكۡنِهِ
And in Musa, when We sent him to Fir`awn with a manifest authority. But (Fir`awn) turned away along with his hosts. (51:38-39)
وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمۡ تَعَالَوۡاۡ إِلَى مَأ أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ وَإِلَى الرَّسُولِ رَأَيۡتَ الۡمُنَـفِقِينَ يَصُدُّونَ عَنكَ صُدُوداً
And when it is said to them:Come to what Allah has sent down and to the Messenger, you see the hypocrites turn away from you with aversion. (4:61)
وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمۡ تَعَالَوۡاۡ يَسۡتَغۡفِرۡ لَكُمۡ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ لَوَّوۡاۡ رُءُوسَهُمۡ وَرَأَيۡتَهُمۡ يَصُدُّونَ وَهُم مُّسۡتَكۡبِرُونَ
And when it is said to them:Come, so that the Messenger of Allah may ask forgiveness from Allah for you, they twist their heads, and you would see them turning away their faces in pride. (63:5)
And Luqman said to his son:
وَلَا تُصَعِّرۡ خَدَّكَ لِلنَّاسِ
And turn not your face away from men with pride. (31:18)
meaning, do not turn away from them in an arrogant manner.
And Allah says:
وَإِذَا تُتۡلَى عَلَيۡهِ ءَايَـتُنَا وَلَّى مُسۡتَكۡبِراً
And when Our verses are recited to him, he turns away in pride. (31:7)
لِيُضِلَّ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ
and leading (others) too (far) astray from the path of Allah.
This either refers to those who are stubborn, or it means that the person who does this has been created like this so that he will be one of those who lead others astray from the path of Allah.
Then Allah says:
لَهُ فِي الدُّنۡيَا خِزۡيٌ
For him there is disgrace in this worldly life,
meaning, humiliation and shame, such as when he is too arrogant to heed the signs of Allah, so Allah will send humiliation upon him in this world and will punish him in this world, before he reaches the Hereafter, because this world is all he cares about and all he knows.
وَنُذِيقُهُ يَوۡمَ الۡقِيَامَةِ عَذَابَ الۡحَرِيقِ
ذَلِكَ بِمَا قَدَّمَتۡ يَدَاكَ
and on the Day of Resurrection We shall make him taste the torment of burning. That is because of what your hands have sent forth,
means, this will be said to him by way of rebuke.
وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ لَيۡسَ بِظَلَّمٍ لِّلۡعَبِيدِ
and verily, Allah is not unjust to the servants.
This is like the Ayah:
خُذُوهُ فَاعۡتِلُوهُ إِلَى سَوَاءِ الۡجَحِيمِ
ثُمَّ صُبُّواۡ فَوۡقَ رَأۡسِهِ مِنۡ عَذَابِ الۡحَمِيمِ
ذُقۡ إِنَّكَ أَنتَ الۡعَزِيزُ الۡكَرِيمُ
إِنَّ هَـذَا مَا كُنتُمۡ بِهِ تَمۡتَرُونَ
(It will be said:) Seize him and drag him into the midst of blazing Fire, Then pour over his head the torment of boiling water.
Taste you (this)! Verily, you were (pretending to be) the mighty, the generous! Verily, this is that whereof you used to doubt! (44:47-50)
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