Ayah

Word by Word
۞وَإِن
And if
كُنتُمۡ
you are
عَلَىٰ
on
سَفَرٖ
a journey
وَلَمۡ
and not
تَجِدُواْ
you find
كَاتِبٗا
a scribe
فَرِهَٰنٞ
then pledge
مَّقۡبُوضَةٞۖ
in hand
فَإِنۡ
Then if
أَمِنَ
entrusts
بَعۡضُكُم
one of you
بَعۡضٗا
(to) another
فَلۡيُؤَدِّ
then let discharge
ٱلَّذِي
the one who
ٱؤۡتُمِنَ
is entrusted
أَمَٰنَتَهُۥ
his trust
وَلۡيَتَّقِ
And let him fear
ٱللَّهَ
Allah
رَبَّهُۥۗ
his Lord
وَلَا
And (do) not
تَكۡتُمُواْ
conceal
ٱلشَّهَٰدَةَۚ
the evidence
وَمَن
And whoever
يَكۡتُمۡهَا
conceals it
فَإِنَّهُۥٓ
then indeed he
ءَاثِمٞ
(is) sinful
قَلۡبُهُۥۗ
his heart
وَٱللَّهُ
And Allah
بِمَا
of what
تَعۡمَلُونَ
you do
عَلِيمٞ
(is) All-Knower
۞وَإِن
And if
كُنتُمۡ
you are
عَلَىٰ
on
سَفَرٖ
a journey
وَلَمۡ
and not
تَجِدُواْ
you find
كَاتِبٗا
a scribe
فَرِهَٰنٞ
then pledge
مَّقۡبُوضَةٞۖ
in hand
فَإِنۡ
Then if
أَمِنَ
entrusts
بَعۡضُكُم
one of you
بَعۡضٗا
(to) another
فَلۡيُؤَدِّ
then let discharge
ٱلَّذِي
the one who
ٱؤۡتُمِنَ
is entrusted
أَمَٰنَتَهُۥ
his trust
وَلۡيَتَّقِ
And let him fear
ٱللَّهَ
Allah
رَبَّهُۥۗ
his Lord
وَلَا
And (do) not
تَكۡتُمُواْ
conceal
ٱلشَّهَٰدَةَۚ
the evidence
وَمَن
And whoever
يَكۡتُمۡهَا
conceals it
فَإِنَّهُۥٓ
then indeed he
ءَاثِمٞ
(is) sinful
قَلۡبُهُۥۗ
his heart
وَٱللَّهُ
And Allah
بِمَا
of what
تَعۡمَلُونَ
you do
عَلِيمٞ
(is) All-Knower

Translation

If ye are on a journey, and cannot find a scribe, a pledge with possession (may serve the purpose). And if one of you deposits a thing on trust with another, Let the trustee (Faithfully) discharge His trust, and let him fear his Lord. Conceal not evidence; for whoever conceals it,- His heart is tainted with sin. And Allah Knoweth all that ye do.

Tafsir

And if you are upon a journey, travelling and you contract a debt, and you do not find a writer, then a pledge (ruhun or rihaan, plural of rahn) in hand, as a guarantee for you. The Sunna clarifies the permissibility of making pledges in towns, where writers may be forthcoming; but the stipulation is made in the event of travel because in this case it is more important to have a guarantee; God's reference to it being 'in hand' (maqbooda) is a condition for the pledge given to be valid, and to satisfy the pledgee or his representative. But if one of you, the creditor, trusts another, the debtor, over the debt and does not require a pledge, let him who is trusted, the debtor, deliver his trust, the debt; and let him fear God his Lord, when delivering it. And do not conceal the testimony, if you are summoned to give it; whoever conceals it, his heart is sinful: the heart is mentioned because it is the locus of the testimony, and because if it sins, there are other sinful consequences, and so the person will be punished as though he were a sinner; and God knows what you do, nothing of which can be hidden from Him.

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