Ayah

Word by Word
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا
O you
ٱلَّذِينَ
who
ءَامَنُوٓاْ
believe[d]
إِذَا
When
تَدَايَنتُم
you contract with one another
بِدَيۡنٍ
any debt
إِلَىٰٓ
for
أَجَلٖ
a term
مُّسَمّٗى
fixed
فَٱكۡتُبُوهُۚ
then write it
وَلۡيَكۡتُب
And let write
بَّيۡنَكُمۡ
between you
كَاتِبُۢ
a scribe
بِٱلۡعَدۡلِۚ
in justice
وَلَا
And not
يَأۡبَ
(should) refuse
كَاتِبٌ
a scribe
أَن
that
يَكۡتُبَ
he writes
كَمَا
as
عَلَّمَهُ
(has) taught him
ٱللَّهُۚ
Allah
فَلۡيَكۡتُبۡ
So let him write
وَلۡيُمۡلِلِ
and let dictate
ٱلَّذِي
the one
عَلَيۡهِ
on whom
ٱلۡحَقُّ
(is) the right
وَلۡيَتَّقِ
and let him fear
ٱللَّهَ
Allah
رَبَّهُۥ
his Lord
وَلَا
and (let him) not
يَبۡخَسۡ
diminish
مِنۡهُ
from it
شَيۡـٔٗاۚ
anything
فَإِن
Then if
كَانَ
is
ٱلَّذِي
the one
عَلَيۡهِ
on him
ٱلۡحَقُّ
(is) the right
سَفِيهًا
(of) limited understanding
أَوۡ
or
ضَعِيفًا
weak
أَوۡ
or
لَا
not
يَسۡتَطِيعُ
capable
أَن
that
يُمِلَّ
(can) dictate
هُوَ
he
فَلۡيُمۡلِلۡ
then let dictate
وَلِيُّهُۥ
his guardian
بِٱلۡعَدۡلِۚ
with justice
وَٱسۡتَشۡهِدُواْ
And call for evidence
شَهِيدَيۡنِ
two witnesses
مِن
among
رِّجَالِكُمۡۖ
your men
فَإِن
And if
لَّمۡ
not
يَكُونَا
there are
رَجُلَيۡنِ
two men
فَرَجُلٞ
then one man
وَٱمۡرَأَتَانِ
and two women
مِمَّن
of whom
تَرۡضَوۡنَ
you agree
مِنَ
of
ٱلشُّهَدَآءِ
[the] witnesses
أَن
(so) that (if)
تَضِلَّ
[she] errs
إِحۡدَىٰهُمَا
one of the two
فَتُذَكِّرَ
then will remind
إِحۡدَىٰهُمَا
one of the two
ٱلۡأُخۡرَىٰۚ
the other
وَلَا
And not
يَأۡبَ
(should) refuse
ٱلشُّهَدَآءُ
the witnesses
إِذَا
when
مَا
that
دُعُواْۚ
they are called
وَلَا
And not
تَسۡـَٔمُوٓاْ
(be) weary
أَن
that
تَكۡتُبُوهُ
you write it
صَغِيرًا
small
أَوۡ
or
كَبِيرًا
large
إِلَىٰٓ
for
أَجَلِهِۦۚ
its term
ذَٰلِكُمۡ
That
أَقۡسَطُ
(is) more just
عِندَ
near
ٱللَّهِ
Allah
وَأَقۡوَمُ
and more upright
لِلشَّهَٰدَةِ
for evidence
وَأَدۡنَىٰٓ
and nearer
أَلَّا
that not
تَرۡتَابُوٓاْ
you (have) doubt
إِلَّآ
except
أَن
that
تَكُونَ
be
تِجَٰرَةً
a transaction
حَاضِرَةٗ
present
تُدِيرُونَهَا
you carry out
بَيۡنَكُمۡ
among you
فَلَيۡسَ
then not
عَلَيۡكُمۡ
on you
جُنَاحٌ
any sin
أَلَّا
that not
تَكۡتُبُوهَاۗ
you write it
وَأَشۡهِدُوٓاْ
And take witness
إِذَا
when
تَبَايَعۡتُمۡۚ
you make commercial transaction
وَلَا
And not
يُضَآرَّ
(should) be harmed
كَاتِبٞ
(the) scribe
وَلَا
and not
شَهِيدٞۚ
(the) witness
وَإِن
and if
تَفۡعَلُواْ
you do
فَإِنَّهُۥ
then indeed it
فُسُوقُۢ
(is) sinful conduct
بِكُمۡۗ
for you
وَٱتَّقُواْ
and fear
ٱللَّهَۖ
Allah
وَيُعَلِّمُكُمُ
And teaches
ٱللَّهُۗ
Allah
وَٱللَّهُ
And Allah
بِكُلِّ
of every
شَيۡءٍ
thing
عَلِيمٞ
(is) All-Knower
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا
O you
ٱلَّذِينَ
who
ءَامَنُوٓاْ
believe[d]
إِذَا
When
تَدَايَنتُم
you contract with one another
بِدَيۡنٍ
any debt
إِلَىٰٓ
for
أَجَلٖ
a term
مُّسَمّٗى
fixed
فَٱكۡتُبُوهُۚ
then write it
وَلۡيَكۡتُب
And let write
بَّيۡنَكُمۡ
between you
كَاتِبُۢ
a scribe
بِٱلۡعَدۡلِۚ
in justice
وَلَا
And not
يَأۡبَ
(should) refuse
كَاتِبٌ
a scribe
أَن
that
يَكۡتُبَ
he writes
كَمَا
as
عَلَّمَهُ
(has) taught him
ٱللَّهُۚ
Allah
فَلۡيَكۡتُبۡ
So let him write
وَلۡيُمۡلِلِ
and let dictate
ٱلَّذِي
the one
عَلَيۡهِ
on whom
ٱلۡحَقُّ
(is) the right
وَلۡيَتَّقِ
and let him fear
ٱللَّهَ
Allah
رَبَّهُۥ
his Lord
وَلَا
and (let him) not
يَبۡخَسۡ
diminish
مِنۡهُ
from it
شَيۡـٔٗاۚ
anything
فَإِن
Then if
كَانَ
is
ٱلَّذِي
the one
عَلَيۡهِ
on him
ٱلۡحَقُّ
(is) the right
سَفِيهًا
(of) limited understanding
أَوۡ
or
ضَعِيفًا
weak
أَوۡ
or
لَا
not
يَسۡتَطِيعُ
capable
أَن
that
يُمِلَّ
(can) dictate
هُوَ
he
فَلۡيُمۡلِلۡ
then let dictate
وَلِيُّهُۥ
his guardian
بِٱلۡعَدۡلِۚ
with justice
وَٱسۡتَشۡهِدُواْ
And call for evidence
شَهِيدَيۡنِ
two witnesses
مِن
among
رِّجَالِكُمۡۖ
your men
فَإِن
And if
لَّمۡ
not
يَكُونَا
there are
رَجُلَيۡنِ
two men
فَرَجُلٞ
then one man
وَٱمۡرَأَتَانِ
and two women
مِمَّن
of whom
تَرۡضَوۡنَ
you agree
مِنَ
of
ٱلشُّهَدَآءِ
[the] witnesses
أَن
(so) that (if)
تَضِلَّ
[she] errs
إِحۡدَىٰهُمَا
one of the two
فَتُذَكِّرَ
then will remind
إِحۡدَىٰهُمَا
one of the two
ٱلۡأُخۡرَىٰۚ
the other
وَلَا
And not
يَأۡبَ
(should) refuse
ٱلشُّهَدَآءُ
the witnesses
إِذَا
when
مَا
that
دُعُواْۚ
they are called
وَلَا
And not
تَسۡـَٔمُوٓاْ
(be) weary
أَن
that
تَكۡتُبُوهُ
you write it
صَغِيرًا
small
أَوۡ
or
كَبِيرًا
large
إِلَىٰٓ
for
أَجَلِهِۦۚ
its term
ذَٰلِكُمۡ
That
أَقۡسَطُ
(is) more just
عِندَ
near
ٱللَّهِ
Allah
وَأَقۡوَمُ
and more upright
لِلشَّهَٰدَةِ
for evidence
وَأَدۡنَىٰٓ
and nearer
أَلَّا
that not
تَرۡتَابُوٓاْ
you (have) doubt
إِلَّآ
except
أَن
that
تَكُونَ
be
تِجَٰرَةً
a transaction
حَاضِرَةٗ
present
تُدِيرُونَهَا
you carry out
بَيۡنَكُمۡ
among you
فَلَيۡسَ
then not
عَلَيۡكُمۡ
on you
جُنَاحٌ
any sin
أَلَّا
that not
تَكۡتُبُوهَاۗ
you write it
وَأَشۡهِدُوٓاْ
And take witness
إِذَا
when
تَبَايَعۡتُمۡۚ
you make commercial transaction
وَلَا
And not
يُضَآرَّ
(should) be harmed
كَاتِبٞ
(the) scribe
وَلَا
and not
شَهِيدٞۚ
(the) witness
وَإِن
and if
تَفۡعَلُواْ
you do
فَإِنَّهُۥ
then indeed it
فُسُوقُۢ
(is) sinful conduct
بِكُمۡۗ
for you
وَٱتَّقُواْ
and fear
ٱللَّهَۖ
Allah
وَيُعَلِّمُكُمُ
And teaches
ٱللَّهُۗ
Allah
وَٱللَّهُ
And Allah
بِكُلِّ
of every
شَيۡءٍ
thing
عَلِيمٞ
(is) All-Knower

Translation

O ye who believe! When ye deal with each other, in transactions involving future obligations in a fixed period of time, reduce them to writing Let a scribe write down faithfully as between the parties: let not the scribe refuse to write: as Allah Has taught him, so let him write. Let him who incurs the liability dictate, but let him fear His Lord Allah, and not diminish aught of what he owes. If they party liable is mentally deficient, or weak, or unable Himself to dictate, Let his guardian dictate faithfully, and get two witnesses, out of your own men, and if there are not two men, then a man and two women, such as ye choose, for witnesses, so that if one of them errs, the other can remind her. The witnesses should not refuse when they are called on (For evidence). Disdain not to reduce to writing (your contract) for a future period, whether it be small or big: it is juster in the sight of Allah, More suitable as evidence, and more convenient to prevent doubts among yourselves but if it be a transaction which ye carry out on the spot among yourselves, there is no blame on you if ye reduce it not to writing. But take witness whenever ye make a commercial contract; and let neither scribe nor witness suffer harm. If ye do (such harm), it would be wickedness in you. So fear Allah; For it is Good that teaches you. And Allah is well acquainted with all things. If ye are on a journey, and cannot find a scribe, a pledge with possession (may serve the purpose). And if one of you deposits a thing on trust with another, let the trustee (faithfully) discharge his trust, and let him Fear his Lord conceal not evidence; for whoever conceals it, - his heart is tainted with sin. And Allah knoweth all that ye do.

Tafsir

O you who believe, when you contract, when you are dealing with, a debt, such as in prepayment for (future) delivery of goods or a loan, one upon another for a stated, a known, term, write it down, as confirmation and security against any dispute; and let a writer write it, the contract of debt, down betweenyou justly, accurately, not increasing or decreasing the amount or the terms; and let not any writer refuse to write it down, if he is requested for such a task, as God has taught him (the kaaf of ka-maa, 'as', is semantically connected to the verb ya'ba, 'refuse'), that is, just as He has given him the advantage of knowing how to write, he should not be niggardly in this respect; so let him write (repeated for emphasis), and let the debtor dictate, to the one writing the contract, for he is the one being witnessed, and must be fully aware of his obligations; and let him fear God his Lord, when dictating, and not diminish anything of it, of the debt due. And if the debtor be a fool, a squanderer, or weak, not up to dictating on account of old age or immaturity, or unable to dictate himself, on account of being dumb, or not knowing the language and so forth, then let his guardian, the one in charge of his affairs, be it a parent, an executor, a custodian or an interpreter, dictate justly. And summon to bear witness, the debt, two witnesses, men, mature Muslim free men; or if the two, witnesses, be not men, then one man and two women, to bear witness, such witnesses as you approve of, on account of their piety and probity; the number of women is because of the fact, so that if one of the two women errs, forgets the testimony, given their lesser astuteness and accuracy; the other, the one remembering, will remind her (read fa-tudhakkira or fa-tudhkira), the one that has forgotten - the 'reminding' clause is the reason [for the choice of two women], that is to say, so that she may be reminded if she errs or strays into error, because this [forgetfulness] is the cause of it (a variant reading [for an, 'that'] has the conditional in, 'if', with [the verb inflected as] tudhakkiru, 'she will remind', making it a new sentence, the response to which [follows]); and let the witnesses not refuse, whenever (the maa of idhaa maa, 'whenever', is extra) they are summoned, to bear witness and take responsibility for the testimony; and be not disdainful, lazy, to write it down, that which you have witnessed in truth (for this frequently occurred), be it, small or great, a little or much, with its term, that is, the date on which it is due (ilaa ajlihi is a circumstantial qualifier referring to the [pronominal suffix] haa' of taktuboo-hu, 'you write it down'); that, writing down, is more equitable, more just, in God's sight, more upright for testimony, that is to say, [that is] more helpful in summoning witness, because it contains the reminder; and nearer, closer to attaining [the desired state] that you will not be in doubt, with regard to the amount and the due dates; unless it be, [that] there is, trade carried out there and then (tijaaratun haadiratun: a variant reading has tijaaratan haadiratan, in which case the nominal sentence is missing its subject, and must be the pronoun for tijaara, 'trade', that is, hiya, 'it [fem. pronoun]') that you give and take between you, without there being a timeframe, then you will not be at fault if you do not write it, the merchandise itself, down. And take witnesses, over it, when you are trading with one another, for this is a better means of preventing dispute. The provisions here are delegated (to the personal choice of the people involved). And let not either writer or witness, the creditor and the debtor, be pressed, to distorting [the agreement], being prevented from testimony or dictation; nor should the creditor press them by charging them with what is not suitable for the testimony or the dictation; and if you do, what is prohibited to you, that is sinfulness, a rebellion against obedience, and lack of truth, in you. And fear God, in what He commands and prohibits. God teaches you (wa-yu'allimukumu Llaahu, is an implied circumstantial qualifier or it denotes the beginning of a new clause), what is in your best interests, and God knows all things.

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