Ayah

Word by Word
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا
O you
ٱلَّذِينَ
who
ءَامَنُواْ
believe[d]
كُتِبَ
Prescribed
عَلَيۡكُمُ
for you
ٱلۡقِصَاصُ
(is) the legal retribution
فِي
in
ٱلۡقَتۡلَىۖ
(the matter of) the murdered
ٱلۡحُرُّ
the freeman
بِٱلۡحُرِّ
for the freeman
وَٱلۡعَبۡدُ
and the slave
بِٱلۡعَبۡدِ
for the slave
وَٱلۡأُنثَىٰ
and the female
بِٱلۡأُنثَىٰۚ
for the female
فَمَنۡ
But whoever
عُفِيَ
is pardoned
لَهُۥ
[for it]
مِنۡ
from
أَخِيهِ
his brother
شَيۡءٞ
anything
فَٱتِّبَاعُۢ
then follows up
بِٱلۡمَعۡرُوفِ
with suitable
وَأَدَآءٌ
[and] payment
إِلَيۡهِ
to him
بِإِحۡسَٰنٖۗ
with kindness
ذَٰلِكَ
That (is)
تَخۡفِيفٞ
a concession
مِّن
from
رَّبِّكُمۡ
your Lord
وَرَحۡمَةٞۗ
and mercy
فَمَنِ
Then whoever
ٱعۡتَدَىٰ
transgresses
بَعۡدَ
after
ذَٰلِكَ
that
فَلَهُۥ
then for him
عَذَابٌ
(is) a punishment
أَلِيمٞ
painful
يَـٰٓأَيُّهَا
O you
ٱلَّذِينَ
who
ءَامَنُواْ
believe[d]
كُتِبَ
Prescribed
عَلَيۡكُمُ
for you
ٱلۡقِصَاصُ
(is) the legal retribution
فِي
in
ٱلۡقَتۡلَىۖ
(the matter of) the murdered
ٱلۡحُرُّ
the freeman
بِٱلۡحُرِّ
for the freeman
وَٱلۡعَبۡدُ
and the slave
بِٱلۡعَبۡدِ
for the slave
وَٱلۡأُنثَىٰ
and the female
بِٱلۡأُنثَىٰۚ
for the female
فَمَنۡ
But whoever
عُفِيَ
is pardoned
لَهُۥ
[for it]
مِنۡ
from
أَخِيهِ
his brother
شَيۡءٞ
anything
فَٱتِّبَاعُۢ
then follows up
بِٱلۡمَعۡرُوفِ
with suitable
وَأَدَآءٌ
[and] payment
إِلَيۡهِ
to him
بِإِحۡسَٰنٖۗ
with kindness
ذَٰلِكَ
That (is)
تَخۡفِيفٞ
a concession
مِّن
from
رَّبِّكُمۡ
your Lord
وَرَحۡمَةٞۗ
and mercy
فَمَنِ
Then whoever
ٱعۡتَدَىٰ
transgresses
بَعۡدَ
after
ذَٰلِكَ
that
فَلَهُۥ
then for him
عَذَابٌ
(is) a punishment
أَلِيمٞ
painful

Translation

O ye who believe! the law of equality is prescribed to you in cases of murder: the free for the free, the slave for the slave, the woman for the woman. But if any remission is made by the brother of the slain, then grant any reasonable demand, and compensate him with handsome gratitude, this is a concession and a Mercy from your Lord. After this whoever exceeds the limits shall be in grave penalty.

Tafsir

O you who believe, prescribed, made obligatory, for you is retaliation, on equal terms, regarding the slain, both in the attributes [of the one slain] and in the action involved; a free man, is killed, for a free man, and not for a slave; and a slave for a slave, and a female for a female. The Sunna makes it clear that a male may be killed [in retaliation] for a female, and that religious affiliation should be taken into account also, so that a Muslim cannot be killed in return for an disbeliever, even if the former be a slave and the latter a free man. But if anything, of the blood, is pardoned any one, of those who have slain, in relation to his brother, the one slain, so that the retaliation is waived (the use of the indefinite shay'un, 'anything', here implies the waiving of retaliation through a partial pardon by the inheritors [of the slain]; the mention of akheeh ['his brother'] is intended as a conciliatory entreaty to pardon and a declaration that killing should not sever the bonds of religious brotherhood; the particle man, 'any one', is the subject of a conditional or a relative clause, of which the predicate is [the following, fa'ittibaa'un]) let the pursuing, that is, the action of the one who has pardoned in pursuing the killer, be honourable, demanding the blood money without force. The fact that the 'pursuing' results from the 'pardoning' implies that one of the two [actions] is a duty, which is one of al-Shaafi'ee's two opinions here. The other [opinion] is that retaliation is the duty, whereas the blood money is merely compensation [for non-retaliation], so that if one were to pardon but not name his blood money, then nothing [happens]; and this [latter] is the preferred [opinion]. And let the payment, of the blood money by the slayer, to him, the pardoner, that is, the one inheriting [from the slain], be with kindliness, without procrastination or fraud; that, stipulation mentioned here about the possibility of retaliation and the forgoing of this in return for blood money, is an alleviation, a facilitation, given, to you, by your Lord, and a mercy, for you, for He has given you latitude in this matter and has not categorically demanded that one [of the said options] be followed through, in the way that He made it obligatory for Jews to retaliate and for Christians to [pardon and] accept blood money; and for him who commits aggression, by being unjust towards the killer and slaying him, after that, that is, [after] pardoning - his is a painful chastisement, of the Hellfire in the Hereafter, or of being killed in this world.

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