Word by Word
I (have) submitted (myself)
to (the) Lord
(of) the worlds
I (have) submitted (myself)
to (the) Lord
(of) the worlds
Behold! his Lord said to him: "Bow (thy will to Me):" He said: "I bow (my will) to the Lord and Cherisher of the Universe."
And mention: When his Lord said to him, 'Submit', obey God and devote your religion purely to Him, he said, 'I have submitted to the Lord of the Worlds'.
"Ibrahim's Supplication that Allah sends the Prophet
Allah mentioned Ibrahim's supplication;
رَبَّنَا وَابۡعَثۡ فِيهِمۡ رَسُولاً مِّنۡهُمۡ يَتۡلُو عَلَيۡهِمۡ ايَاتِكَ
""Our Lord! Send amongst them a Messenger of their own, who shall recite unto them Your verses,
Allah mentioned Ibrahim's supplication for the benefit of the people of the Sacred Area (to grant them security and provision), and it was perfected by invoking Allah to send a Messenger from his offspring.
This accepted supplication, from Ibrahim, conformed with Allah's appointed destiny that Muhammad be sent as a Messenger among the Ummiyyin and to all non-Arabs, among the Jinns and mankind.
Hence, Ibrahim was the first person to mention the Prophet to the people. Ever since, Muhammad was known to the people, until the last Prophet was sent among the Children of Israel, Jesus the son of Mary, who mentioned Muhammad by name. Jesus addressed the Children of Israel saying,
إِنِّى رَسُولُ اللَّهِ إِلَيۡكُم مُّصَدِّقاً لِّمَا بَيۡنَ يَدَىَّ مِنَ التَّوۡرَاةِ وَمُبَشِّراً بِرَسُولٍ يَأۡتِى مِن بَعۡدِى اسۡمُهُ أَحۡمَدُ
I am the Messenger of Allah unto you, confirming what is before me in the Tawrah, and giving glad tidings of a Messenger to come after me, whose name shall be Ahmad. (61:6)
This is why the Prophet said,
دَعۡوَةُ أَبِي إِبۡرَاهِيمَ وَبُشۡرَى عِيسَى ابۡنِ مَرۡيَم
The supplication of my father Ibrahim and the glad tidings brought forth by Jesus the son of Mary.
The Prophet said,
وَرَأَتۡ أُمِّي أَنَّهُ خَرَجَ مِنۡهَا نُورٌ أَضَاءَتۡ لَهُ قُصُورُ الشَّام
My mother ﷺ a light that went out of her and radiated the palaces of Ash-Sham.
It was said that;
the Prophet's mother ﷺ this vision when she was pregnant with, narrated this vision to her people, and the story became popular among them.
The light mentioned in the Hadith appeared in Ash-Sham (Greater Syria), testifying to what will later occur when the Prophet's religion will be firmly established in Ash-Sham area. This is why by the end of time, Ash-Sham will be a refuge for Islam and its people. Also, Jesus the son of Mary will descend in Ash-Sham, next to the eastern white minaret in Damascus.
The Two Sahihs stated,
لَاا تَزَالُ طَايِفَةٌ مِنۡ أُمَّتِي ظَاهِرِينَ عَلَى الۡحَقِّ لَاا يَضُرُّهُمۡ مَنۡ خَذَلَهُمۡ وَلَاا مَنۡ خَالَفَهُمۡ حَتَّى يَأۡتِيَ أَمۡرُ اللهِ وَهُمۡ كَذَلِك
There will always be a group of my Ummah who will be on the truth, undeterred by those who fail or oppose them, until the command of Allah comes while they are on this.
Al-Bukhari added in his Sahih,
And they will reside in Ash-Sham.
The Meaning of Al-Kitab wal-Hikmah
and instruct them in the Book,
meaning, the Sunnah,
as Al-Hasan, Qatadah, Muqatil bin Hayyan and Abu Malik asserted.
It was also said that `Al-Hikmah', means
`comprehension in the religion',
and both meanings are correct.
and purify them,
Ali bin Abi Talhah said, that Ibn Abbas said that the Ayah means,
""With the obedience of Allah.""
إِنَّكَ أَنتَ العَزِيزُ الحَكِيمُ
Verily, You are the Mighty, the Wise.
This Ayah stated that Allah is able to do anything, and nothing escapes His ability. He is Wise in His decisions, His actions, and He puts everything in its rightful place due to His perfect knowledge, wisdom and justice.
Only the Fools deviate from Ibrahim's Religion
وَمَن يَرۡغَبُ عَن مِّلَّةِ إِبۡرَاهِيمَ إِلاَّ مَن سَفِهَ نَفۡسَهُ وَلَقَدِ اصۡطَفَيۡنَاهُ فِي الدُّنۡيَا وَإِنَّهُ فِي الاخِرَةِ لَمِنَ الصَّالِحِينَ
And who turns away from the religion of Ibrahim (i.e. Islamic Monotheism) except him who fools himself! Truly, We chose him in this world and verily, in the Hereafter he will be among the righteous.
Allah refuted the disbelievers' innovations of associating others with Allah in defiance of the religion of Ibrahim, the leader of the upright. Ibrahim always singled out Allah in worship, with sincerity, and he did not call upon others besides Allah. He did not commit Shirk, even for an instant. He disowned every other deity that was being worshipped instead of Allah and defied all his people in this regard. Prophet Ibrahim said,
فَلَماَّ رَأَى الشَّمۡسَ بَازِغَةً قَالَ هَـذَا رَبِّى هَـذَا أَكۡبَرُ فَلَمَّأ أَفَلَتۡ قَالَ يقَوۡمِ إِنِّى بَرِىءٌ مِّمَّا تُشۡرِكُونَ
إِنِّى وَجَّهۡتُ وَجۡهِىَ لِلَّذِى فَطَرَ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرۡضَ حَنِيفاً وَمَأ أَنَاۡ مِنَ الۡمُشۡرِكِينَ
O my people! I am indeed free from all that you join as partners (in worship with Allah). Verily, I have turned my face towards Him Who has created the heavens and the earth Hanifa (Islamic Monotheism), and I am not of Al-Mushrikin. (6:78-79)
Also, Allah said,
وَإِذۡ قَالَ إِبۡرَهِيمُ لاًّبِيهِ وَقَوۡمِهِ إِنَّنِى بَرَاءٌ مِّمَّا تَعۡبُدُونَ
إِلاَّ الَّذِى فَطَرَنِى فَإِنَّهُ سَيَهۡدِينِ
(And (remember) when Ibrahim said to his father and his people:""Verily, I am innocent of what you worship. ""Except Him (i.e. I worship none but Allah alone) Who did create me; and verily, He will guide me."" (43:26-27)
وَمَا كَانَ اسۡتِغۡفَارُ إِبۡرَهِيمَ لاًّبِيهِ إِلاَّ عَن مَّوۡعِدَةٍ وَعَدَهَأ إِيَّاهُ فَلَمَّا تَبَيَّنَ لَهُ أَنَّهُ عَدُوٌّ لِلَّهِ تَبَرَّأَ مِنۡهُ إِنَّ إِبۡرَهِيمَ لَاوَّاهٌ حَلِيمٌ
And Ibrahim's invoking (of Allah) for his father's forgiveness was only because of a promise he (Ibrahim) had made to him (his father). But when it became clear to him (Ibrahim) that he (his father) was an enemy of Allah, he dissociated himself from him. Verily, Ibrahim was Awwah (one who invokes Allah with humility, glorifies Him and remembers Him much) and was forbearing. (9:114)
إِنَّ إِبۡرَهِيمَ كَانَ أُمَّةً قَـنِتًا لِلَّهِ حَنِيفًا وَلَمۡ يَكُ مِنَ الۡمُشۡرِكِينَ
شَاكِراً لانۡعُمِهِ اجۡتَبَـهُ وَهَدَاهُ إِلَى صِرَطٍ مُّسۡتَقِيمٍ
وَءاتَيۡنَـهُ فِى الۡدُّنۡيَا حَسَنَةً وَإِنَّهُ فِى الاٌّخِرَةِ لَمِنَ الصَّـلِحِينَ
Verily, Ibrahim was an Ummah (a leader having all the good qualities, or a nation), obedient to Allah, Hanif (i.e. to worship none but Allah), and he was not one of those who were Al-Mushrikin. (He was) thankful for His (Allah's) favors. He (Allah) chose him (as an intimate friend) and guided him to a straight path. And We gave him good in this world, and in the Hereafter he shall be of the righteous. (16:120-122)
This is why Allah said here,
وَمَن يَرۡغَبُ عَن مِّلَّةِ إِبۡرَاهِيمَ
(And who turns away from the religion of Ibrahim),
meaning, abandons his path, way and method
إِلاَّ مَن سَفِهَ نَفۡسَهُ
(except him who fools himself),
meaning, who commits injustice against himself by deviating from the truth, to wickedness.
Such a person will be defying the path of he who was chosen in this life to be a true Imam, from the time he was young, until Allah chose him to be His Khalil, and who shall be among the successful in the Last Life. Is there anything more insane than deviating from this path and following the path of misguidance and deviation instead. Is there more injustice than this!
إِنَّ الشِّرۡكَ لَظُلۡمٌ عَظِيمٌ
Verily, joining others in worship with Allah is a great Zulm (wrong) indeed. (31:13)
Abu Al-Aliyah and Qatadah said,
""This Ayah (2:130) was revealed about the Jews who invented a practice that did not come from Allah and that defied the religion of Ibrahim.""
مَا كَانَ إِبۡرَهِيمُ يَهُودِيًّا وَلَا نَصۡرَانِيًّا وَلَكِن كَانَ حَنِيفًا مُّسۡلِمًا وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ الۡمُشۡرِكِينَ
إِنَّ أَوۡلَى النَّاسِ بِإِبۡرَهِيمَ لَلَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوهُ وَهَـذَا النَّبِىُّ وَالَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواۡ وَاللَّهُ وَلِىُّ الۡمُوۡمِنِينَ
Ibrahim was neither a Jew nor a Christian, but he was a true Muslim Hanifa (to worship none but Allah alone) and he was not of Al-Mushrikin. Verily, among mankind who have the best claim to Ibrahim are those who followed him, and this Prophet (Muhammad) and those who have believed (Muslims). And Allah is the Wali (Protector and Helper) of the believers. (3:67-68),
testifies to this fact.
Allah said next,
إِذۡ قَالَ لَهُ رَبُّهُ أَسۡلِمۡ قَالَ أَسۡلَمۡتُ لِرَبِّ الۡعَالَمِينَ
When his Lord said to him, ""Submit (i.e. be a Muslim)!"" He said, ""I have submitted myself (as a Muslim) to the Lord of the Alamin (mankind, Jinn and all that exists).""
This Ayah indicates that Allah commanded Ibrahim to be sincere with Him and to abide and submit to Him;
Ibrahim perfectly adhered to Allah's command.
وَوَصَّى بِهَا إِبۡرَاهِيمُ بَنِيهِ وَيَعۡقُوبُ
And this (submission to Allah, Islam) was enjoined by Ibrahim upon his sons and by Yaqub,
means, Ibrahim commanded his offspring to follow this religion, that is, Islam, for Allah.
Or, the Ayah might be referring to Ibrahim's words,
أَسۡلَمۡتُ لِرَبِّ الۡعَالَمِينَ
(I have submitted myself (as a Muslim) to the Lord of the Alamin (mankind, Jinn and all that exists).
This means that these Prophets loved these words so much that they preserved them until the time of death and advised their children to adhere to them after them.
Similarly, Allah said,
وَجَعَلَهَا كَلِمَةً بَـقِيَةً فِى عَقِبِهِ
And he (Ibrahim) made it (i.e. La ilaha illallah (none has the right to be worshipped but Allah alone)) a Word lasting among his offspring, (true Monotheism). (43:28)
It might be that Ibrahim advised his children, including Jacob, Isaac's son, who were present. It appears, and Allah knows best, that Isaac was endowed with Jacob, during the lifetime of Ibrahim and Sarah, for the good news includes both of them in Allah's statement,
فَبَشَّرۡنَـهَا بِإِسۡحَـقَ وَمِن وَرَاءِ إِسۡحَـقَ يَعۡقُوبَ
But We gave her (Sarah) glad tidings of Ishaq (Isaac), and after Ishaq, of Yaqub (Jacob). (11:71).
Also, if Jacob was not alive then, there would be no use here in mentioning him specifically among Isaac's children.
Also, Allah said in Surah Al-Ankabut,
وَوَهَبۡنَا لَهُ إِسۡحَـقَ وَيَعۡقُوبَ وَجَعَلۡنَا فِى ذُرِّيَّتِهِ النُّبُوَّةَ وَالۡكِتَـبَ
And We bestowed on him (Ibrahim), Ishaq and Yaqub, and We ordained among his offspring Prophethood and the Book. (29:27)
وَوَهَبۡنَا لَهُ إِسۡحَـقَ وَيَعۡقُوبَ نَافِلَةً
And We bestowed upon him Ishaq, and (a grandson) Yaqub, (21:72),
thus, indicating that this occurred during Ibrahim's lifetime.
Also, Jacob built Bayt Al-Maqdis, as earlier books testified.
The Two Sahihs recorded that Abu Dharr said,
""I said, `O Messenger of Allah! Which Masjid was built first?'
He said, Al-Masjid Al-Haram (Al-Ka`bah).
I said, `Then?'
He said, Bayt Al- Maqdis.
I said, `How many years later?'
He said, Forty years.""
Further, the advice that Jacob gave to his children, which we will soon mention, testifies that Jacob was among those who received the advice mentioned in Ayat above (2:130-132).
Adhering to Tawhid until Death
يَا بَنِيَّ إِنَّ اللّهَ اصۡطَفَى لَكُمُ الدِّينَ فَلَ تَمُوتُنَّ إَلاَّ وَأَنتُم مُّسۡلِمُونَ
(Saying), ""O my sons! Allah has chosen for you the (true) religion, then die not except as Muslims.""
meaning, perform righteous deeds during your lifetime and remain on this path, so that Allah will endow you with the favor of dying upon it.
Usually, one dies upon the path that he lived on and is resurrected according to what he died on. Allah, the Most Generous, helps those who seek to do good deeds to remain on the righteous path.
This by no means contradicts the authentic Hadith that says,
إِنَّ الرَّجُلَ لَيَعۡمَلُ بِعَمَلِ أَهۡلِ الۡجَنَّةِ حَتّـى مَا يَكُونُ بَيۡنَهُ وَبَيۡنَهَا إِلاَّ بَاعٌ أَوۡ ذِرَاعٌ فَيَسۡبِقُ عَلَيۡهِ الۡكِتَابُ فَيَعمَلُ بِعَمَلِ أَهۡلِ النَّار فَيَدۡخُلُهَا
وَإِنَّ الرَّجُلَ لَيَعۡمَلُ بعَمَلِ أَهلِ النَّارِ حَتَّى مَا يَكُونُ بَيۡنَهُ وَبَيۡنَهَا إِلاَّ بَاعٌ أَو ذِرَاعٌ فَيَسۡبِقُ عَلَيۡهِ الۡكِتَابُ فَيَعۡمَلُ بعَمَلِ أَهۡلِ الۡجَنَّةِ فَيَدۡخُلُهَا
Man might perform the works of the people of Paradise until only a span of outstretched arms or a cubit separates him from it, then the Book (destiny) takes precedence, and he performs the works of the people of the Fire and thus enters it.
Also, man might perform the works of the people of the Fire until only a span of outstretched arms or a cubit separates him from the Fire, but the Book takes precedence and he performs the works of the people of Paradise and thus enters it.
فَأَمَّا مَنۡ أَعۡطَى وَاتَّقَى
وَأَمَّا مَن بَخِلَ وَاسۡتَغۡنَى
As for him who gives (in charity) and keeps his duty to Allah and fears Him. And believes in Al-Husna. We will make smooth for him the path of ease (goodness).
But he who is a greedy miser and thinks himself self-sufficient. And belies Al-Husna (none has the right to be worshipped except Allah). We will make smooth for him the path for evil. (92:5-10)
Yaqub's Will and Testament to His Children upon His Death
أَمۡ كُنتُمۡ شُهَدَاء إِذۡ حَضَرَ يَعۡقُوبَ الۡمَوۡتُ إِذۡ قَالَ لِبَنِيهِ
Or were you witnesses when death approached Yaqub (Jacob) When he said unto his sons, ""What will you worship after me?""
This Ayah contains Allah's criticism of the Arab pagans among the offspring of Ismail as well as the disbelievers among the Children of Israel Jacob the son of Isaac, the son of Ibrahim.
When death came to Jacob, he advised his children to worship Allah alone without partners.
He said to them,
مَا تَعۡبُدُونَ مِن بَعۡدِي قَالُواۡ نَعۡبُدُ إِلَـهَكَ وَإِلَـهَ ابَايِكَ إِبۡرَاهِيمَ وَإِسۡمَاعِيلَ وَإِسۡحَقَ
""What will you worship after me""
They said, ""We shall worship your Ilah (God ـ Allah) the Ilah of your fathers, Ibrahim, Ismail, Ishaq,""
Mentioning Ismail here is a figure of speech, because Ismail is Jacob's uncle.
An-Nahas said that the Arabs call the uncle a father, as Al-Qurtubi mentioned.
This Ayah is used as evidence that;
the grandfather is called a father and inherits, rather than the brothers (i.e. when his son dies), as Abu Bakr asserted, according to Al-Bukhari who narrated Abu Bakr's statement from Ibn Abbas and Ibn Az-Zubayr.
Al-Bukhari then commented that there are no opposing opinions regarding this subject.
This is also the opinion of Aishah the Mother of the believers, Al-Hasan Al-Basri, Tawus and Ata, Malik, Ash-Shafii and Ahmad said that the inheritance is divided between the grandfather and the brothers.
It was reported that this was also the opinion of Umar, Uthman, Ali, bin Mas`ud, Zayd bin Thabit and several scholars among the Salaf and later generations.
One Ilah (God),
means, ""We single Him out in divinity and do not associate anything or anyone with Him.""
وَنَحۡنُ لَهُ مُسۡلِمُونَ
And to Him we submit,
in obedience meaning, obedient and submissiveness.
Similarly, Allah said,
وَلَهُ أَسۡلَمَ مَن فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرۡضِ طَوۡعًا وَكَرۡهًا وَإِلَيۡهِ يُرۡجَعُونَ
While to Him submitted all creatures in the heavens and the earth, willingly or unwillingly. And to Him shall they all be returned. (3:83)
Indeed, Islam is the religion of all the Prophets, even if their respective laws differed.
وَمَأ أَرۡسَلۡنَا مِن قَبۡلِكَ مِن رَّسُولٍ إِلاَّ نُوحِى إِلَيۡهِ أَنَّهُ لا إِلَـهَ إِلاَّ أَنَاۡ فَاعۡبُدُونِ
And We did not send any Messenger before you (O Muhammad) ﴿but We revealed to him (saying):La ilaha illa Ana (none has the right to be worshipped but I (Allah)), so worship Me (alone and none else). (21:25)
There are many other Ayat - and Hadiths - on this subject. For instance, the Prophet said,
نَحۡنُ مَعۡشَرَ الاَۡنۡبِيَاءِ أَوۡلَادُ عَلَّتٍ دِينُنا وَاحِد
We, the Prophets, are brothers with different mothers, but the same religion.
تِلۡكَ أُمَّةٌ قَدۡ خَلَتۡ
That was a nation who has passed away,
meaning, existed before your time.
لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتۡ وَلَكُم مَّا كَسَبۡتُمۡ
They shall receive the reward of what they earned and you of what you earn.
This Ayah proclaims, Your relationship to the Prophets or righteous people among your ancestors will not benefit you, unless you perform good deeds that bring about you religious benefit. They have their deeds and you have yours.
وَلَا تُسۡأَلُونَ عَمَّا كَانُوا يَعۡمَلُونَ
And you will not be asked of what they used to do.
This is why a Hadith proclaims,
مَنۡ بَطَّأَ بِهِ عَمَلُهُ لَمۡ يُسۡرِعۡ بِهِ نَسَبُه
Whoever was slowed on account of his deeds will not get any faster on account of his family lineage.
وَقَالُواۡ كُونُواۡ هُودًا أَوۡ نَصَارَى تَهۡتَدُواۡ
قُلۡ بَلۡ مِلَّةَ إِبۡرَاهِيمَ حَنِيفًا وَمَا كَانَ مِنَ الۡمُشۡرِكِينَ
And they say, ""Be Jews or Christians, then you will be guided."" Say (to them O Muhammad), ""Nay, (we follow) only the religion of Ibrahim, Hanif (Islamic Monotheism), and he was not of Al-Mushrikin (those who worshipped others along with Allah.
Muhammad bin Ishaq reported that Ibn Abbas said that Abdullah bin Suriya Al-Awar said to the Messenger of Allah,
""The guidance is only what we (Jews) follow. Therefore, follow us, O Muhammad, and you will be rightly guided.""
Also, the Christians said similarly, so Allah revealed,
وَقَالُواۡ كُونُواۡ هُودًا أَوۡ نَصَارَى تَهۡتَدُواۡ
(And they say, ""Be Jews or Christians, then you will be guided"").
قُلۡ بَلۡ مِلَّةَ إِبۡرَاهِيمَ حَنِيفًا
Say (to them O Muhammad), ""Nay, (we follow) only the religion of Ibrahim, Hanif.
means, ""We do not need the Judaism or Christianity that you call us to, rather,
مِلَّةَ إِبۡرَاهِيمَ حَنِيفًا
((we follow) only the religion of Ibrahim, Hanif) meaning, on the straight path, as Muhammad bin Ka`b Al-Qurazi and Isa bin Jariyah stated.
Also, Abu Qilabah said,
""The Hanif is what the Messengers, from beginning to end, believed in."
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