Word by Word
lest you will sit
lest you will sit
Take not with Allah another object of worship; or thou (O man!) wilt sit in disgrace and destitution.
Do not set up another god besides God, or you will sit blameworthy, forsaken, with no one to assist you.
"A Threat to Quraysh
وَكَمۡ أَهۡلَكۡنَا مِنَ الۡقُرُونِ مِن بَعۡدِ نُوحٍ
And how many generations have We destroyed after Nuh!
Warning the disbelievers of the Quraysh for rejecting His Messenger Muhammad, Allah says that He destroyed other nations who rejected the Messengers after Nuh.
This indicates that during the centuries between Adam and Nuh, humans were following Islam, as Ibn Abbas said:
""Between Adam and Nuh there were ten generations, during all of which humans were following Islam.""
The meaning (of the Ayah) is:
""You disbelievers are not more dear to Allah than they were, and you have rejected the most noble of the Messengers and the best of creation, so you are more deserving of punishment.""
وَكَفَى بِرَبِّكَ بِذُنُوبِ عِبَادِهِ خَبِيرًَا بَصِيرًا
And sufficient is your Lord as All-Knower and Seer of the sins of His servants.
means, He knows everything they do, good and evil, and nothing at all is hidden from Him, may He be glorified and exalted
The Reward of Those who desire this World and Those who desire the Hereafter
مَّن كَانَ يُرِيدُ الۡعَاجِلَةَ
Whoever desires the quick-passing (transitory enjoyment of this world),
Allah tells us that not everyone who desires this world and its luxuries gets what he wants. That is attained by those whom Allah wants to have it, and they get what He wills that they should get.
This Ayah narrows down the general statements made in other Ayat.
عَجَّلۡنَا لَهُ فِيهَا مَا نَشَاء لِمَن نُّرِيدُ ثُمَّ جَعَلۡنَا لَهُ جَهَنَّمَ
We readily grant him what We will for whom We like. Then, afterwards, We have appointed for him Hell;
meaning, in the Hereafter,
he will burn therein,
means, he will enter it until it covers him on all sides,
means, blamed for his bad behavior and evil deeds, because he chose the transient over the eternal,
means, far away (from Allah's mercy), humiliated and put to shame
وَمَنۡ أَرَادَ الاخِرَةَ
And whoever desires the Hereafter,
wanting the Hereafter and its blessings and delights,
وَسَعَى لَهَا سَعۡيَهَا
and strives for it, with the necessary effort due for it,
seeking it in the right way, which is following the Messenger.
while he is a believer,
means, his heart has faith, i.e., he believes in the reward and punishment,
فَأُولَيِكَ كَانَ سَعۡيُهُم مَّشۡكُورًا
then such are the ones whose striving shall be appreciated, (rewarded by Allah)
كُلًّ نُّمِدُّ هَـوُلاء وَهَـوُلاء
On each these as well as those We bestow
(On each) meaning,
on each of the two groups, those who desire this world and those who desire the Hereafter, We bestow what they want,
مِنۡ عَطَاء رَبِّكَ
from the bounties of your Lord.
means, He is the One Who is in control of all things, and He is never unjust. He gives to each what he deserves, whether it is eternal happiness or doom. His decree is unstoppable, no one can withhold what He gives or change what He wants.
وَمَا كَانَ عَطَاء رَبِّكَ مَحۡظُورًا
And the bounties of your Lord can never be forbidden.
meaning, no one can withhold or prevent them.
""(It means) they can never decrease.""
Al-Hasan and others said,
""(It means) they can never be prevented.""
Then Allah says
انظُرۡ كَيۡفَ فَضَّلۡنَا بَعۡضَهُمۡ عَلَى بَعۡضٍ
See how We prefer one above another,
meaning in this world, so that some are rich and some are poor, and others are in between; some are beautiful, some are ugly and others are in between; some die young while others live to a great age, and some die in between.
وَلَلخِرَةُ أَكۡبَرُ دَرَجَاتٍ وَأَكۡبَرُ تَفۡضِيلً
and verily, the Hereafter will be greater in degrees and greater in preferment.
means, the differences between them in the Hereafter will be greater than the differences between them in this world. Some of them will be in varying levels of Hell, in chains and fetters, while others will be in the lofty degrees of Paradise, with its blessings and delights.
The people of Hell will vary in their positions and levels, just as the people of Paradise will.
In Paradise there are one hundred levels, and the distance between one level and another is like the distance between heaven and earth.
It is recorded in the Two Sahihs that the Prophet said:
إِنَّ أَهۡلَ الدَّرَجَاتِ الۡعُلَى لَيَرَوۡنَ أَهۡلَ عِلِّيِّينَ كَمَا تَرَوۡنَ الۡكَوۡكَبَ الۡغَابِرَ فِي أُفُقِ السَّمَاء
The people of the highest levels (of Paradise) will see the people of `Illiyin as if they are looking at distant stars on the horizon
Do not associate Anything in Worship with Allah
لااَّ تَجۡعَل مَعَ اللّهِ إِلَـهًا اخَرَ فَتَقۡعُدَ مَذۡمُومًا مَّخۡذُولااً
Set not up with Allah any other ilah (god), or you will sit down reproved, forsaken (in the Hellfire).
Addressing those who are responsible among this Ummah, Allah says, ""Do not admit any partner into your worship of your Lord.""
(or you will sit down reproved),
meaning, because of associating others with Him.
means, because the Lord, may He be exalted, will not help you; He will leave you to the one whom you worshipped, and he has no power either to benefit or to harm, because the Only One Who has the power to benefit or to harm is Allah alone, with no partner or associate.
Imam Ahmad reported that Abdullah bin Mas`ud said:
""The Messenger of Allah said:
مَنۡ أَصَابَتۡهُ فَاقَةٌ فَأَنۡزَلَهَا بِالنَّاسِ لَمۡ تُسَدَّ فَاقَتُهُ وَمَنۡ أَنۡزَلَهَا بِاللهِ أَرۡسَلَ اللهُ لَهُ بِالۡغِنَى إِمَّا اجِلً وَإِمَّا غِنىً عَاجِلً
Whoever is afflicted with poverty and goes and asks people for help, will never get rid of his poverty, but if he asks Allah for help, then Allah will grant him the means of independence sooner or later.
This was also recorded by Abu Dawud and At-Tirmidhi, who said, ""Hasan Sahih Gharib"""
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