Word by Word
(It will be said to him:) "Read thine (own) record: Sufficient is thy soul this day to make out an account against thee."
And it will be said to him: 'Read your book! This day your soul suffices as your own reckoner'.
"The Night and Day are Signs of the Great Power of Allah
وَجَعَلۡنَا اللَّيۡلَ وَالنَّهَارَ ايَتَيۡنِ فَمَحَوۡنَا ايَةَ اللَّيۡلِ وَجَعَلۡنَا ايَةَ النَّهَارِ مُبۡصِرَةً
And We have appointed the night and the day as two Ayat (signs). Then, We have obliterated the sign of the night (with darkness) while We have made the sign of the day illuminating,
Allah reminds us of the great signs that He created, including the alternation of the night and day, so that people may rest at night, and go out and earn a living, do their work, and travel during the day, and so that they may know the number of days, weeks, months and years, so they will know the appointed times for paying debts, doing acts of worship, dealing with transactions, paying rents and so on.
لِتَبۡتَغُواۡ فَضۡلً مِّن رَّبِّكُمۡ
that you may seek bounty from your Lord,
meaning, in your living and travels etc.
وَلِتَعۡلَمُواۡ عَدَدَ السِّنِينَ وَالۡحِسَابَ
and that you may know the number of the years and to count.
If time stood still and never changed, we would not know any of these things, as Allah says:
قُلۡ أَرَأَيۡتُمۡ إِن جَعَلَ اللَّهُ عَلَيۡكُمُ الَّيۡلَ سَرۡمَداً إِلَى يَوۡمِ الۡقِيَـمَةِ مَنۡ إِلَـهٌ غَيۡرُ اللَّهِ يَأۡتِيكُمۡ بِضِيَأءٍ أَفَلَ تَسۡمَعُونَ
قُلۡ أَرَءَيۡتُمۡ إِن جَعَلَ اللَّهُ عَلَيۡكُمُ النَّهَارَ سَرۡمَداً إِلَى يَوۡمِ الۡقِيَـمَةِ مَنۡ إِلَـهٌ غَيۡرُ اللَّهِ يَأۡتِيكُمۡ بِلَيۡلٍ تَسۡكُنُونَ فِيهِ أَفلَ تُبۡصِرُونَ
وَمِن رَّحۡمَتِهِ جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الَّيۡلَ وَالنَّهَارَ لِتَسۡكُنُواۡ فِيهِ وَلِتَبتَغُواۡ مِن فَضۡلِهِ وَلَعَلَّكُمۡ تَشۡكُرُونَ
Say:""Tell me! If Allah made the night continuous for you till the Day of Resurrection, which god besides Allah could bring you light! Will you not then hear!""
Say:""Tell me! If Allah made the day continuous for you till the Day of Resurrection, which god besides Allah could bring you night wherein you rest! Will you not then see!""
It is out of His mercy that He has made for you the night and the day that you may rest therein and that you may seek of His bounty - and in order that you may be grateful. (28:71-73)
تَبَارَكَ الَّذِى جَعَلَ فِى السَّمَأءِ بُرُوجاً وَجَعَلَ فِيهَا سِرَاجاً وَقَمَراً مُّنِيراً
وَهُوَ الَّذِى جَعَلَ الَّيۡلَ وَالنَّهَارَ خِلۡفَةً لِّمَنۡ أَرَادَ أَن يَذَّكَّرَ أَوۡ أَرَادَ شُكُوراً
Blessed be He Who has placed the big stars in the heaven, and has placed therein a great lamp (sun), and a moon giving light.
And He it is Who has put the night and the day in succession, for such who desires to remember or desires to show his gratitude. (25:61-62)
وَلَهُ اخۡتِلَـفُ الَّيۡلِ وَالنَّهَارِ
and His is the alternation of night and day. (23:80)
يُكَوِّرُ الَّيۡـلَ عَلَى النَّهَـارِ وَيُكَوِّرُ النَّـهَارَ عَلَى الَّيۡلِ وَسَخَّـرَ الشَّمۡسَ وَالۡقَمَرَ كُـلٌّ يَجۡرِى لاًّجَـلٍ مُّسَـمًّى أَلا هُوَ الۡعَزِيزُ الۡغَفَّارُ
He makes the night to go in the day and makes the day to go in the night. And He has subjected the sun and the moon. Each running (on a fixed course) for an appointed term. Verily, He is the All-Mighty, the Oft-Forgiving. (39:5)
فَالِقُ الاِصۡبَاحِ وَجَعَلَ الَّيۡلَ سَكَناً وَالشَّمۡسَ وَالۡقَمَرَ حُسۡبَاناً ذَلِكَ تَقۡدِيرُ الۡعَزِيزِ الۡعَلِيمِ
(He is the) Cleaver of the daybreak. He has appointed the night for resting, and the sun and the moon for reckoning. Such is the measuring of the All-Mighty, the All-Knowing. (6:96)
وَءَايَةٌ لَّهُمُ الَّيۡلُ نَسۡلَخُ مِنۡهُ النَّهَارَ فَإِذَا هُم مُّظۡلِمُونَ
وَالشَّمۡسُ تَجۡرِى لِمُسۡتَقَرٍّ لَّهَـا ذَلِكَ تَقۡدِيرُ الۡعَزِيزِ الۡعَلِيمِ
And a sign for them is the night. We withdraw therefrom the day, and behold, they are in darkness.
And the sun runs on its fixed course for a term (appointed). That is the decree of the All-Mighty, the All-Knowing. (36:37-38)
Allah has made the night a sign having distinguishing features by which it is known. These features include the darkness and the appearance of the moon. The day also has distinguishing features by which it is known; the light and the appearance of the shining sun. He made a distinction between the light of the moon and the light of the sun, so that they may be distinguished from one another, as Allah says:
هُوَ الَّذِى جَعَلَ الشَّمۡسَ ضِيَأءً وَالۡقَمَرَ نُوراً وَقَدَّرَهُ مَنَازِلَ لِتَعۡلَمُواۡ عَدَدَ السِّنِينَ وَالۡحِسَابَ مَا خَلَقَ اللَّهُ ذَلِكَ إِلاَّ بِالۡحَقِّ
It is He Who made the sun a shining thing and the moon a light and measured out for it stages that you might know the number of years and to count (periods of time). Allah did not create this but in truth. (10:5) until,
لاايَـتٍ لِّقَوۡمٍ يَتَّقُونَ
(Ayat for those people who keep their duty to Allah, and fear Him much). (10:6)
يَسۡـَلُونَكَ عَنِ الَاهِلَّةِ قُلۡ هِىَ مَوَاقِيتُ لِلنَّاسِ وَالۡحَجِّ
They ask you about the crescent moons.
Say:""These are signs to mark fixed periods of time for mankind and for the pilgrimage."" (2:189)
فَمَحَوۡنَا ايَةَ اللَّيۡلِ وَجَعَلۡنَا ايَةَ النَّهَارِ مُبۡصِرَةً
Then, We have obliterated the sign of the night (with darkness) while We have made the sign of the day illuminating,
Ibn Jurayj reported that Abdullah bin Kathir commented on this Ayah:
""(It means) the darkness of the night and the twilight of the day.""
Ibn Jurayj reported that Mujahid said:
""The sun is the sign of the day and the moon is the sign of the night.
فَمَحَوۡنَا ايَةَ اللَّيۡل
(We have obliterated the sign of the night), this refers to the moon's blackness, which is how Allah has created it.""
وَجَعَلۡنَا اللَّيۡلَ وَالنَّهَارَ ايَتَيۡنِ
And We have appointed the night and the day as two Ayat.
Ibn Abi Najih reported that Ibn Abbas said:
""By night and day, this is how Allah created them, may He be glorified.""
وَكُلَّ شَيۡءٍ فَصَّلۡنَاهُ تَفۡصِيلً
And We have explained everything (in detail) with full explanation.
Every Person will have the Book of his Deeds with Him
After mentioning time, and the deeds of the son of Adam that take place therein, Allah says:
وَكُلَّ إِنسَانٍ أَلۡزَمۡنَاهُ طَأيِرَهُ فِي عُنُقِهِ
And We have fastened every man's Ta'irah (deeds) to his neck,
The word Ta'irah (lit. something that flies) refers to man's deeds which fly from him, as Ibn Abbas, Mujahid and others said.
It includes both good deeds and bad deeds, he will be forced to acknowledge them and will be rewarded or punished accordingly.
فَمَن يَعۡمَلۡ مِثۡقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ خَيۡراً يَرَهُ
وَمَن يَعۡـمَلۡ مِثۡقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ شَرّاً يَرَهُ
So whosoever does good equal to the weight of a speck of dust shall see it.
And whosoever does evil equal to the weight of a speck of dust shall see it. (99:7-8)
إِذۡ يَتَلَقَّى الۡمُتَلَقِّيَانِ عَنِ الۡيَمِينِ وَعَنِ الشِّمَالِ قَعِيدٌ
مَّا يَلۡفِظُ مِن قَوۡلٍ إِلاَّ لَدَيۡهِ رَقِيبٌ عَتِيدٌ
(Remember) that the two receivers (recording angels) receive (each human being), one sitting on the right and one on the left (to note his or her actions).
Not a word does he (or she) utter but there is a watcher by him ready (to record it). (50:17-18)
وَإِنَّ عَلَيۡكُمۡ لَحَـفِظِينَ
يَعۡلَمُونَ مَا تَفۡعَلُونَ
But verily, over you (are appointed angels in charge of mankind) to watch you, Kiraman (Honorable) Katibin - writing down (your deeds), they know all that you do. (82:10-12)
إِنَّمَا تُجۡزَوۡنَ مَا كُنتُمۡ تَعۡمَلُونَ
You are only being requited for what you used to do. (52:16)
مَن يَعۡمَلۡ سُوءًا يُجۡزَ بِهِ
whosoever works evil, will have the recompense thereof. (4:123)
The meaning is that the deeds of the sons of Adam are preserved, whether they are great or small, and they are recorded night and day, morning and evening.
وَنُخۡرِجُ لَهُ يَوۡمَ الۡقِيَامَةِ كِتَابًا يَلۡقَاهُ مَنشُورًا
and on the Day of Resurrection, We shall bring out for him a Book which he will find wide open.
meaning, `We will collect all of his deeds for him in a Book which will be given to him on the Day of Resurrection, either in his right hand, if he is one of the blessed, or in his left hand if he is one of the wretched.'
(wide open) means,
it will be open for him and others to read all of his deeds, from the beginning of his life until the end.
يُنَبَّأُ الاِنسَـنُ يَوۡمَيِذِ بِمَا قَدَّمَ وَأَخَّرَ
بَلِ الاِنسَـنُ عَلَى نَفۡسِهِ بَصِيرَةٌ
وَلَوۡ أَلۡقَى مَعَاذِيرَهُ
On that Day man will be informed of what (deeds) he sent forward, and what (deeds) he left behind.
Nay! Man will be a witness against himself, though he may put forth his excuses. (75:13-15)
اقۡرَأۡ كَتَابَكَ كَفَى بِنَفۡسِكَ الۡيَوۡمَ عَلَيۡكَ حَسِيبًا
(It will be said to him):""Read your Book. You yourself are sufficient as a reckoner against you this Day.""
meaning, you have not been treated unjustly and nothing has been recorded against you except what you have done, because you remember everything that you have done, and no one will forget anything that he did. Everyone will be able to read his Book, whether he is literate or illiterate.
أَلۡزَمۡنَاهُ طَأيِرَهُ فِي عُنُقِهِ
And We have fastened every man's Ta'irah (deeds) to his neck,
The neck is mentioned because it is a part of the body that has no counterpart, and when one is restrained by it, he has no escape.
Ma`mar narrated from Qatadah,
وَنُخۡرِجُ لَهُ يَوۡمَ الۡقِيَامَةِ
(and on the Day of Resurrection, We shall bring out for him), We shall bring forth those deeds.""
كِتَابًا يَلۡقَاهُ مَنشُورًا
(a Book which he will find wide open).
Ma`mar said:Al-Hasan recited,
عَنِ الۡيَمِينِ وَعَنِ الشِّمَالِ قَعِيدٌ
one sitting on the right and one on the left. (50:17)
And he said;
""O son of Adam, your Book has been opened for you, and two noble angels have been entrusted to accompany you, one on your right and one on your left.
The one who is on your right records your good deeds, and the one who is on your left records your bad deeds. `So do whatever you want, a lot or a little, until you die, then I will fold up your Book and tie it to your neck with you in your grave. Then when you come out on the Day of Resurrection, you will find the Book wide open, so read your Book.'
By Allah, the One Who makes you accountable for your own deeds is being perfectly just.""
These are some of the best words Al-Hasan ever spoke, may Allah have mercy on him
No One will have to bear the Sins of Another
مَّنِ اهۡتَدَى فَإِنَّمَا يَهۡتَدي لِنَفۡسِهِ وَمَن ضَلَّ فَإِنَّمَا يَضِلُّ عَلَيۡهَا
Whoever goes right, then he goes right only for the benefit of himself. And whoever goes astray, then he goes astray at his own loss.
Allah tells us that whoever is guided and follows the truth, walking in the footsteps of the Prophet, he will gain the good consequences of that for himself.
(And whoever goes astray),
meaning from the truth, deviating from the way of guidance, he is wronging himself and will have to bear the consequences.
Then Allah says:
وَلَا تَزِرُ وَازِرَةٌ وِزۡرَ أُخۡرَى
No one laden with burdens can bear another's burden.
no one will have to bear the sins of another, and he does not wrong anyone besides himself, as Allah says:
وَإِن تَدۡعُ مُثۡقَلَةٌ إِلَى حِمۡلِهَا لَا يُحۡمَلۡ مِنۡهُ شَىۡءٌ
and if one heavily laden calls another to (bear) his load, nothing of it will be lifted. (35:15)
There is no contradiction between this and other Ayat:
وَلَيَحۡمِلُنَّ أَثۡقَالَهُمۡ وَأَثۡقَالاً مَّعَ أَثۡقَالِهِمۡ
And verily, they shall bear their own loads, and other loads besides their own. (29:13)
وَمِنۡ أَوۡزَارِ الَّذِينَ يُضِلُّونَهُمۡ بِغَيۡرِ عِلۡمٍ
and also of the burdens of those whom they misled without knowledge. (16:25)
For those who called others to do evil will bear the sin of their own deviation as well as the sin of those whom they led astray, without detracting the least amount from the burden of those people, and none of this burden shall be removed from them.
This is the justice and mercy of Allah towards His servants.
As Allah says:
وَمَا كُنَّا مُعَذِّبِينَ حَتَّى نَبۡعَثَ رَسُولاً
And We never punish until We have sent a Messenger (to give warning).
No Punishment until a Messenger has been sent
Allah tells us that out of His justice, He does not punish anyone until He has established proof against him by sending a Messenger to him, as He says:
تَكَادُ تَمَيَّزُ مِنَ الغَيۡظِ كُلَّمَا أُلۡقِىَ فِيهَا فَوۡجٌ سَأَلَهُمۡ خَزَنَتُهَأ أَلَمۡ يَأۡتِكُمۡ نَذِيرٌ
قَالُواۡ بَلَى قَدۡ جَأءَنَا نَذِيرٌ فَكَذَّبۡنَا وَقُلۡنَا مَا نَزَّلَ اللَّهُ مِن شَىۡءٍ إِنۡ أَنتُمۡ إِلاَّ فِى ضَلَـلٍ كَبِيرٍ
Every time a group is cast therein, its keeper will ask:""Did no warner come to you!""
They will say:""Yes, indeed a warner did come to us, but we belied him and said:`Allah never sent down anything (of revelation); you are only in great error.""' (67:8-9)
وَسِيقَ الَّذِينَ كَـفَرُواۡ إِلَى جَهَنَّمَ زُمَراً حَتَّى إِذَا جَأءُوهَا فُتِحَتۡ أَبۡوَبُهَا وَقَالَ لَهُمۡ خَزَنَتُهَأ أَلَمۡ يَأۡتِكُمۡ رُسُلٌ مِّنكُمۡ يَتۡلُونَ عَلَيۡكُمۡ ءَايَـتِ رَبِّكُمۡ وَيُنذِرُونَكُمۡ لِقَـأءَ يَوۡمِكُمۡ هَـذَا قَالُواۡ بَلَى وَلَـكِنۡ حَقَّتۡ كَلِمَةُ الۡعَذَابِ عَلَى الۡكَـفِرِينَ
And those who disbelieved will be driven to Hell in groups, till, when they reach it, the gates thereof will be opened. And its keepers will say, ""Did not the Messengers come to you from yourselves - reciting to you the verses of your Lord, and warning you of the meeting of this Day of yours!""
They will say:""Yes,"" but the Word of torment has been justified against the disbelievers! (39:71)
وَهُمۡ يَصۡطَرِخُونَ فِيهَا رَبَّنَأ أَخۡرِجۡنَا نَعۡمَلۡ صَـلِحاً غَيۡرَ الَّذِى كُـنَّا نَعۡمَلُ أَوَلَمۡ نُعَمِّرۡكُمۡ مَّا يَتَذَكَّرُ فِيهِ مَن تَذَكَّرَ وَجَأءَكُمُ النَّذِيرُ فَذُوقُواۡ فَمَا لِلظَّـلِمِينَ مِن نَّصِيرٍ
Therein they will cry:""Our Lord! Bring us out, we shall do righteous good deeds, not (the evil deeds) that we used to do.""
(Allah will reply:) ""Did We not give you lives long enough, so that whosoever would receive admonition could receive it! And the warner came to you. So taste you (the evil of your deeds). For the wrongdoers there is no helper."" (35:37)
There are other Ayat which indicate that Allah will not make anyone enter Hell except after sending a Messenger to them.
The Issue of Small Children who die
Here there arises an issue over which the scholars in earlier and modern times have disagreed, may Allah have mercy on them.
This is the issue of children who die when they are little, and their parents are disbelievers:
what happens to them!
By the same token, what happens to the insane, the deaf, the senile and those who die during the circumstances of Fatrah, when no Message reached them.
Several Hadiths have been narrated on this topic, which I will quote here by the help and support of Allah. The First Hadith from Al-Aswad bin Sari'.
Imam Ahmad reported from Al-Aswad bin Sari' that the Messenger of Allah said,
أَرۡبَعَةٌ يَحۡتَجُّونَ يَوۡمَ الۡقِيَامَةِ
رَجُلٌ أَصَمُّ لَا يَسۡمَعُ شَيۡيًا
وَرَجُلٌ مَاتَ فِي فَتۡرَةٍ
فَأَمَّا الاۡأَصَمُّ فَيَقُولُ رَبِّ قَدۡ جَاءَ الاۡأِسۡلَأمُ وَمَا أَسۡمَعُ شَيۡيًا
وَأَمَّا الاۡأَحۡمَقُ فَيَقُولُ رَبِّ قَدۡ جَاءَ الاۡأِسۡلَأمُ وَالصِّبۡيَانُ يَحۡذِفُونِي بِالۡبَعۡرِ
وَأَمَّا الۡهَرِمُ فَيَقُولُ رَبِّ لَقَدۡ جَاءَ الاۡأِسۡلَأمُ وَمَا أَعۡقِلُ شَيۡيًا
وَأَمَّا الَّذِي مَاتَ فِي الۡفَتۡرَةِ فَيَقُولُ رَبِّ مَا أَتَانِي لَكَ رَسُولٌ
فَيَأۡخُذُ مَوَاثِيقَهُمۡ لِيُطِيعَنَّهُ فَيُرۡسِلُ إِلَيۡهِمۡ أَنِ ادۡخُلُوا النَّارَ
فَوَالَّذِي نَفۡسُ مُحَمَّدٍ بِيَدِهِ لَوۡ دَخَلُوهَا لَكَانَتۡ عَلَيۡهِمۡ بَرۡدًا وَسَلَمًا
There are four who will present their case on the Day of Resurrection:
a deaf man who never heard anything,
an insane man,
a very old and senile man, and
a man who died during the Fatrah.
As for the deaf man, he will say,
""O Lord, Islam came but I never heard anything.""
As for the insane man, he will say,
""O Lord, Islam came and the young boys were throwing camel dung at me.""
As for the senile man, he will say,
""O Lord, Islam came and I did not understand anything.""
As for the one who died during the Fatrah, he will say,
""O Lord, no Messenger from You came to me.""
Allah will accept their pledge of obedience to Him, then He will send word to them that they should enter the Fire.
By the One in Whose Hand is the soul of Muhammad, if they enter it, it will be cool and safe for them.
There is a similar report with a chain from Qatadah from Al-Hasan from Abu Rafi` from Abu Hurayrah, but at the end it says:
فَمَنۡ دَخَلَهَا كَانَتۡ عَلَيۡهِ بَرۡدًا وَسَلَمًا وَمَنۡ لَمۡ يَدۡخُلۡهَا يُسۡحَبُ إِلَيۡهَا
Whoever enters it will find it cool and safe, and whoever does not enter it will be dragged into it.
This was also recorded by Ishaq bin Rahwayh from Mu`adh bin Hisham, and by Al-Bayhaqi in Al-I`tiqad.
He said:""This is a Sahih chain.""
It was reported by Ibn Jarir from the Hadith of Ma`mar from Hammam from Abu Hurayrah, who attributed it to the Prophet.
Then Abu Hurayrah said:""Recite, if you wish:
وَمَا كُنَّا مُعَذِّبِينَ حَتَّى نَبۡعَثَ رَسُولاً
And We never punish until We have sent a Messenger (to give warning).""
This was also narrated by Ma`mar from Abdullah bin Tawus from his father, from Abu Hurayrah, but it is Mauquf (it was not attributed directly to the Prophet).
The Second Hadith from Abu Hurayrah
He said that the Messenger of Allah said:
كُلُّ مَوۡلُودٍ يُولَدُ عَلَى الۡفِطۡرَةِ فَأَبَوَاهُ يُهَوِّدَانِهِ أَوۡ يُنَصِّرَانِهِ أَوۡ يُمَجِّسَانِهِ كَمَا تُنۡتِجُ الۡبَهِيمَةُ بَهِيمَةً جَمۡعَاءَ هَلۡ تُحِسُّونَ فِيهَا مِنۡ جَدۡعَاءَ
Every newborn is born in a state of Fitrah (the natural state of man), then his parents make him into a Jew or Christian or Zoroastrian, as animals produce whole animals - do you see any that is born mutilated (with something missing)?
According to one report they said:""O Messenger of Allah, what about those who die when they are little?""
اللهُ أَعۡلَمُ بِمَا كَانُوا عَامِلِين
Allah knows best what they would have done.
Imam Ahmad reported from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet (as far as I know - the narrator was not sure if it was attributed to Musa) - said:
ذَرَارِيُّ الۡمُسۡلِمِينَ فِي الۡجَنَّةِ يَكۡفُلُهُمۡ إِبۡرَاهِيمُ عَلَيۡهِ السَّلَم
The children of the Muslims are in Paradise, being taken care of by Ibrahim.
In Sahih Muslim it is reported from Iyyad bin Hammad that the Messenger of Allah said that Allah said:
إِنِّي خَلَقۡتُ عِبَادِي حُنَفَاء
I have created My servants as Hunafa.
According to another version, the wording is ""as Muslims.""
The Third Hadith from Samurah
In his book Al-Mustakhraj `Ala Al-Bukhari, Al-Hafiz Abu Bakr Al-Barqani recorded the Hadith of `Awf Al-A`rabi, from Abu Raja' Al-`Utardi from Samurah that the Prophet said:
كُلُّ مَوۡلُودٍ يُولَدُ عَلَى الۡفِطۡرَة
Every newborn is born in a state of Fitrah.
The people called out to him:""O Messenger of Allah! What about the children of the idolators?""
And the children of the idolators too.
At-Tabarani reported that Samurah said:
""We asked the Messenger of Allah about the children of the idolators, and he said,
هُمۡ خَدَمُ أَهۡلِ الۡجَنَّة
They are the servants of the people of Paradise.
The Fourth Hadith from the Paternal Uncle of Hasna
Ahmad reported that Hasna' bint Mu`awiyah, from Bani Suraym, said that his paternal uncle said to him:
""I said, `O Messenger of Allah, who is in Paradise' He said,
النَّبِيُّ فِي الۡجَنَّةِ
وَالشَّهِيدُ فِي الۡجَنَّةِ
وَالۡمَوۡلُودُ فِي الۡجَنَّةِ
وَالۡوَيِيدُ فِي الۡجَنَّة
Prophets are in Paradise,
martyrs are in Paradise,
infants are in Paradise and
baby girls who were buried alive are in Paradise.
It is Makruh to discuss this Matter
In order to discuss this issue we need good, sound proof, but people who have no knowledge of Shariah may try to speak about it. For this reason some of the scholars did not like to discuss it.
This view has been narrated from Ibn Abbas, Al-Qasim bin Muhammad bin Abi Bakr As-Siddiq, Muhammad bin Al-Hanafiyyah and others.
Ibn Hibban recorded in his Sahih that Jarir bin Hazim said:
I heard Abu Raja' Al-`Utardi saying that he heard Ibn Abbas (may Allah be pleased with them both) saying, ""While he was on the Minbar, the Messenger of Allah said:
لَاا يَزَالُ أَمۡرُ هَذِهِ الاۡاُمَّةِ مُوَاتِيًا أَوۡ مُقَارِبَا مَا لَمۡ يَتَكَلَّمُوا فِي الۡوِلۡدَانِ وَالۡقَدَر
This Ummah will be fine so long as they do not talk about children and the divine decree.""
Ibn Hibban said:
""This means talking about the children of the idolators.""
Abu Bakr Al-Bazzar also recorded it via Jarir bin Hazim, then he said,
""A group narrated it from Abu Raja' from Ibn Abbas, but it is Mauquf.""
وَإِذَا أَرَدۡنَا أَن نُّهۡلِكَ قَرۡيَةً أَمَرۡنَا مُتۡرَفِيهَا فَفَسَقُواۡ فِيهَا فَحَقَّ عَلَيۡهَا الۡقَوۡلُ فَدَمَّرۡنَاهَا تَدۡمِيرًا
And when We decide to destroy a town (population), Amarna those who live luxuriously. Then, they transgress therein, and thus the word (of torment) is justified against it (them). Then We destroy it with complete destruction.
Meanings of Amarna
The commentators differed over the meaning of this word.
It was said that the phrase translated here as ""Amarna those who live luxuriously. Then, they transgress therein""
means, ""We send Our decree upon them,"" as Allah says elsewhere:
أَتَاهَأ أَمۡرُنَا لَيۡلً أَوۡ نَهَارًا
Our decree reaches it by night or by day. (10:24)
For (Amarna cannot mean ""Our command"") because Allah does not command or enjoin immorality.
Or, they said it means that Allah subjugated them to commit immoral deeds, so they deserved the punishment.
Or it was said that it means:""We commanded them to obey Us, but they committed immoral sins, so they deserved punishment.""
This was reported from Ibn Jurayj from Ibn Abbas, and it is also the view of Sa`id bin Jubayr.
أَمَرۡنَا مُتۡرَفِيهَا فَفَسَقُواۡ فِيهَا
Amarna those who live luxuriously. Then, they transgress therein,
Ali bin Abi Talhah reported that Ibn Abbas said:
(this means) ""We gave power to the evil people, so they committed sin therein (in the town), and because they did that, Allah destroyed them with the punishment.""
This is similar to the Ayah:
وَكَذلِكَ جَعَلۡنَا فِي كُلِّ قَرۡيَةٍ أَكَـبِرَ مُجۡرِمِيهَا
And thus We have set up in every town great ones of its wicked people. (6:133)
This was also the view of Abu Al-Aliyah, Mujahid and Ar-Rabi' bin Anas.
وَإِذَا أَرَدۡنَا أَن نُّهۡلِكَ قَرۡيَةً أَمَرۡنَا مُتۡرَفِيهَا فَفَسَقُواۡ فِيهَا
And when We decide to destroy a town (population), Amarna those who live luxuriously. Then, they transgress therein,
Al-`Awfi reported that Ibn Abbas said,
(it means) ""We increase their numbers.""
This was also the view of Ikrimah, Al-Hasan, Ad-Dahhak and Qatadah, and it was reported from Malik and Az-Zuhri."
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