Ayah

Word by Word
فَلَمَّا
So when
ٱسۡتَيۡـَٔسُواْ
they despaired
مِنۡهُ
of him
خَلَصُواْ
they secluded themselves
نَجِيّٗاۖ
(in) private consultation
قَالَ
Said
كَبِيرُهُمۡ
the eldest among them
أَلَمۡ
Do not
تَعۡلَمُوٓاْ
you know
أَنَّ
that
أَبَاكُمۡ
your father
قَدۡ
has taken
أَخَذَ
has taken
عَلَيۡكُم
upon you
مَّوۡثِقٗا
a promise
مِّنَ
by
ٱللَّهِ
Allah
وَمِن
and before
قَبۡلُ
and before
مَا
that
فَرَّطتُمۡ
you failed
فِي
concerning
يُوسُفَۖ
Yusuf
فَلَنۡ
So never
أَبۡرَحَ
will I leave
ٱلۡأَرۡضَ
the land
حَتَّىٰ
until
يَأۡذَنَ
permits
لِيٓ
me
أَبِيٓ
my father
أَوۡ
or
يَحۡكُمَ
Allah decides
ٱللَّهُ
Allah decides
لِيۖ
for me
وَهُوَ
and He
خَيۡرُ
(is) the Best
ٱلۡحَٰكِمِينَ
(of) the judges
فَلَمَّا
So when
ٱسۡتَيۡـَٔسُواْ
they despaired
مِنۡهُ
of him
خَلَصُواْ
they secluded themselves
نَجِيّٗاۖ
(in) private consultation
قَالَ
Said
كَبِيرُهُمۡ
the eldest among them
أَلَمۡ
Do not
تَعۡلَمُوٓاْ
you know
أَنَّ
that
أَبَاكُمۡ
your father
قَدۡ
has taken
أَخَذَ
has taken
عَلَيۡكُم
upon you
مَّوۡثِقٗا
a promise
مِّنَ
by
ٱللَّهِ
Allah
وَمِن
and before
قَبۡلُ
and before
مَا
that
فَرَّطتُمۡ
you failed
فِي
concerning
يُوسُفَۖ
Yusuf
فَلَنۡ
So never
أَبۡرَحَ
will I leave
ٱلۡأَرۡضَ
the land
حَتَّىٰ
until
يَأۡذَنَ
permits
لِيٓ
me
أَبِيٓ
my father
أَوۡ
or
يَحۡكُمَ
Allah decides
ٱللَّهُ
Allah decides
لِيۖ
for me
وَهُوَ
and He
خَيۡرُ
(is) the Best
ٱلۡحَٰكِمِينَ
(of) the judges

Translation

Now when they saw no hope of his (yielding), they held a conference in private. The leader among them said: "Know ye not that your father did take an oath from you in Allah's name, and how, before this, ye did fail in your duty with Joseph? Therefore will I not leave this land until my father permits me, or Allah commands me; and He is the best to command.

Tafsir

So when they despaired of [moving] him, they withdrew to confer privately [together] (najiyyan is a verbal noun that can be used to refer to one person or more, in other words [understand it as meaning] yunaajee ba'duhum ba'dan, 'one conferring with the other'). The most senior of them, in years - Reuben - or, [the most senior of them] in opinion - Judah, said: 'Are you not aware that your father has taken a solemn pledge, a covenant, from you by God, concerning your brother, and formerly (wa-min qablu maa: the maa is extra) you failed regarding Joseph? (but it [the maa] is also said to be relating to the verbal action, [in other words it is] a subject, the predicate of which is min qabl, 'formerly'). So I will never leave, part with, this land, the land of Egypt, until my father permits me, to return to him, or God judges for me, through the deliverance of my brother; and He is the best, the fairest, of judges.

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