Word by Word
Say: He is Allah, the One and Only;
Al-Ikhlas (the Sincerity) Meccan or Medinese, consisting of 4 or 5 verses. The Prophet may peace and salutation be upon him was asked about his Lord and the following was revealed: Say: 'He is God, One (Allaahu is the predicate of huwa, 'He is', and ahadun is its substitution or a second predicate).
Tafsir of Surah Al-Ikhlas
The reason for the revelation of this Surah has already been mentioned.
- the Jews said, `We worship Uzayr, the son of Allah,' and
- the Christians said, `We worship the Messiah (Isa), the son of Allah,' and
- the Zoroastrians said, `We worship the sun and the moon,' and
- the idolators said, `We worship idols,'
Allah revealed to His Messenger,
قُلۡ هُوَ اللَّهُ أَحَدٌ
Say:He is Allah, One.
- He is the One, the Singular,
- Who has no peer,
- no assistant, no rival,
- no equal and none comparable to Him.
This word (Al-Ahad) cannot be used for anyone in affirmation except Allah the Mighty and Majestic, because He is perfect in all of His attributes and actions.
Concerning His saying,
Ikrimah reported that Ibn Abbas said,
This means the One Who all of the creation depends upon for their needs and their requests.
Ali bin Abi Talhah reported from Ibn Abbas,
- He is the Master Who is perfect in His sovereignty,
- the Most Noble Who is perfect in His nobility,
- the Most Magnificent Who is perfect in His magnificence,
- the Most Forbearing Who is perfect in His forbearance,
- the All-Knowing Who is perfect in His knowledge, and
- the Most Wise Who is perfect in His wisdom.
- He is the One Who is perfect in all aspects of nobility and authority.
He is Allah, glory be unto Him. These attributes are not befitting anyone other than Him. He has no coequal and nothing is like Him. Glory be to Allah, the One, the Irresistible.
Al-A`mash reported from Shaqiq, who said that Abu Wa'il said,
As-Samad, is the Master Whose control is complete.
Allah is Above having Children and procreating
Then Allah says,
لَمۡ يَلِدۡ وَلَمۡ يُولَدۡ
He begets not, nor was He begotten.
meaning, He does not have any child, parent or spouse.
وَلَمۡ يَكُن لَّهُ كُفُوًا أَحَدٌ
And there is none comparable to Him.
وَلَمۡ يَكُنۡ لَّهُ كُفُواً أَحَدٌ
(And there is none comparable to Him),
This means He does not have a spouse.
This is as Allah says,
بَدِيعُ السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرۡضِ أَنَّى يَكُونُ لَهُ وَلَدٌ وَلَمۡ تَكُنۡ لَّهُ صَـحِبَةٌ وَخَلَقَ كُلَّ شَىۡءٍ
He is the Originator of the heavens and the earth. How can He have children when He has no wife He created all things. (6:101)
meaning, He owns everything and He created everything. So how can He have a peer among His creatures who can be equal to Him, or a relative who can resemble Him. Glorified, Exalted and far removed is Allah from such a thing.
وَقَالُواۡ اتَّخَذَ الرَّحۡمَـنُ وَلَداً
لَقَدۡ جِيۡتُمۡ شَيۡياً إِدّاً
تَكَادُ السَّمَـوَتُ يَتَفَطَّرۡنَ مِنۡهُ وَتَنشَقُّ الاٌّرۡضُ وَتَخِرُّ الۡجِبَالُ هَدّاً
أَن دَعَوۡا لِلرَّحۡمَـنِ وَلَداً
وَمَا يَنبَغِى لِلرَّحۡمَـنِ أَن يَتَّخِذَ وَلَداً
إِن كُلُّ مَن فِى السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرۡضِ إِلاَّ اتِى الرَّحۡمَـنِ عَبۡداً
لَّقَدۡ أَحۡصَـهُمۡ وَعَدَّهُمۡ عَدّاً
وَكُلُّهُمۡ ءَاتِيهِ يَوۡمَ الۡقِيَـمَةِ فَرۡداً
And they say:Ar-Rahman has begotten a son. Indeed you have brought forth (said) a terrible evil thing. Whereby the heavens are almost torn, and the earth is split asunder, and the mountains fall in ruins, that they ascribe a son to Ar-Rahman. But it is not suitable for Ar-Rahman that He should beget a son.
There is none in the heavens and the earth but comes unto Ar-Rahman as a slave. Verily, He knows each one of them, and has counted them a full counting. And all of them will come to Him alone on the Day of Resurrection. (19:88-95)
And Allah says,
وَقَالُواۡ اتَّخَذَ الرَّحۡمَـنُ وَلَداً سُبۡحَانَهُ بَلۡ عِبَادٌ مُّكۡرَمُونَ
لَا يَسۡبِقُونَهُ بِالۡقَوۡلِ وَهُمۡ بِأَمۡرِهِ يَعۡمَلُونَ
And they say:
Ar-Rahman has begotten a son. Glory to Him! They are but honored servants. They speak not until He has spoken, and they act on His command. (21:26-27)
Allah also says,
وَجَعَلُواۡ بَيۡنَهُ وَبَيۡنَ الۡجِنَّةِ نَسَباً وَلَقَدۡ عَلِمَتِ الجِنَّةُ إِنَّهُمۡ لَمُحۡضَرُونَ
سُبۡحَـنَ اللَّهِ عَمَّا يَصِفُونَ
And they have invented a kinship between Him and the Jinn, but the Jinn know well that they have indeed to appear before Him.
Glorified is Allah! (He is free) from what they attribute unto Him! (37:158-159)
In Sahih Al-Bukhari, it is recorded that that the Prophet said,
لَاا أَحَدَ أَصۡبَرُ عَلَى أَذًى سَمِعَهُ مِنَ اللهِ يَجۡعَلُونَ لَهُ وَلَدًا وَهُوَ يَرۡزُقُهُمۡ وَيُعَافِيهِم
There is no one more patient with something harmful that he hears than Allah. They attribute a son to Him, while it is He Who gives them sustenance and cures them.
Al-Bukhari also recorded from Abu Hurayrah that the Prophet said,
قَالَ اللهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ
كَذَّبَنِي ابۡنُ ادَمَ وَلَمۡ يَكُنۡ لَهُ ذَلِكَ
وَشَتَمَنِي وَلَمۡ يَكُنۡ لَهُ ذَلِكَ
فَأَمَّا تَكۡذِيبُهُ إِيَّايَ فَقَوۡلُهُ
لَنۡ يُعِيدَنِي كَمَا بَدَأَنِي وَلَيۡسَ أَوَّلُ الۡخَلۡقِ بِأَهۡوَنَ عَلَيَّ مِنۡ إِعَادَتِهِ
وَأَمَّا شَتۡمُهُ إِيَّايَ فَقَوۡلُهُ اتَّخَذَ اللهُ وَلَدًا
وَأَنَا الاۡأَحَدُ الصَّمَدُ
لَمۡ أَلِدۡ وَلَمۡ أُولَدۡ
وَلَمۡ يَكُنۡ لِي كُفُوًا أَحَد
Allah the Mighty and Majestic says,
The Son of Adam denies Me and he has no right to do so,
and he abuses Me and he has no right to do so.
In reference to his denial of Me, it is his saying:`He (Allah) will never re-create me like He created me before.' But the re-creation of him is easier than his original creation.
As for his cursing Me, it is his saying:`Allah has taken a son.'
But I am the One, the Self-Sufficient Master. I do not give birth, nor was I born, and there is none comparable to Me.
This is the end of the Tafsir of Surah Al-Ikhlas, and all praise and blessings are due to Allah.
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